Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad Ali Pasha
محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا
محمد علي باشا
Wāli of Egypt, Sudan, Sham, Hejaz, Morea, Thasos, Crete
ModernEgypt, Muhammad Ali by Auguste Couder, BAP 17996.jpg
An 1840 portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha by Auguste Couder
Reign17 May 1805 – 2 March 1848
PredecessorAhmad Khurshid Pasha
SuccessorIbrahim Pasha
Born4 March 1769
Kavala, Macedonia, Rumeli eyalet, Ottoman Empire (present-day Greece)
Died2 August 1849(1849-08-02) (aged 80)
Ras el-Tin Palace, Alexandria, Egypt Eyalet, Ottoman Empire (present day Egypt)
ConsortsAmina Hanim
Mahduran Hanim
Ayn al-Hayat Khanum
Mumtaz Qadin
Mahwish Qadin
Namshaz Qadin
Zayba Khadija Qadin
Shams Safa Qadin
Shami Nur Qadin
Naila Qadin
Gul Fidan Qadin
Qamar Qadin
IssueTawhida Hanim
Ibrahim Pasha
Ahmed Tusun Pasha
Isma'il Kamil Pasha
Khadija Nazli Hanim
Sa'id Pasha
Abd al-Halim Bey
Muhammad Ali Pasha
Zaynab Hanim
Muhammad Abd al-Halim Pasha
Arabicمحمد علي باشا
DynastyMuhammad Ali Dynasty
FatherIbrahim Agha
ReligionBektashi Islam, Alevi Islam

Muhammad[a] Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (Ottoman Turkish: محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا‎; Arabic: محمد علي باشا‎ / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa;[3] 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted. He also ruled Levantine territories outside Egypt. The dynasty that he established would rule Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt and Sudan until the 1952 coup d'état led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Early life

Muhammad Ali's birthplace in Kavala, now in northeastern Greece.

Muhammad Ali was born in Kavala, in Macedonia, Rumeli Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, today a city in Greece. He was born to an Albanian family whose origins were from Korçë.[4][5] He was the second son of a tobacco and shipping merchant named Ibrahim Agha, who also served as an Ottoman commander of a small unit in Kavala.[6][7] His mother was Zeynep, the daughter of the "Ayan of Kavala" Çorbaci Husain Agha. When his father died at a young age, Muhammad was taken and raised by his uncle with his cousins. As a reward for Muhammad Ali's hard work, his uncle gave him the rank of "Bolukbashi" for the collection of taxes in the town of Kavala.[7]

After Muhammad's promising success in collecting taxes, he gained Second Commander rank under his cousin Sarechesme Halil Agha in the Kavala Volunteer Contingent of Albanian mercenaries that was sent to re-occupy Egypt following General Napoleon Bonaparte's withdrawal.[7] He later married Ali Agha's daughter, Emine Nosratli, a wealthy widow, who was his maternal Cousin, because her Mother Kadriye and his Mother Zeynep were sisters, both daughters of Çorbaci Husain Agha. In 1801, his unit was sent, as part of a much larger Ottoman force, to re-occupy Egypt following a brief French occupation that threatened the way of life in Egypt. The expedition landed at Aboukir in the spring of 1801.[8] One of his trusted army commanders was Miralay Mustafa Bey, who had married Muhammad's sister Zubayda and was the Ancestor of the Yakan family.[9]

Other Languages
العربية: محمد علي باشا
asturianu: Mehmet Alí
български: Мохамед Али паша
español: Mehmet Alí
euskara: Mehmet Ali
français: Méhémet Ali
Bahasa Indonesia: Muhammad Ali dari Mesir
italiano: Mehmet Ali
македонски: Мухамед Али Паша
norsk nynorsk: Muhammad Ali av Egypt
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Muhammad Ali (Misr)
português: Maomé Ali
Simple English: Muhammad Ali Pasha
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Muhamed Ali Egipatski