Muhammad

Islamic prophet
Muhammad
مُحَمَّد
Dark vignette Al-Masjid AL-Nabawi Door800x600x300.jpg
"Muhammad the Apostle of God"
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
BornMuḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh
(Arabic: مُحَمَّد بِن عَبد الله‎)

c. 570
Died8 June 632 (aged c. 62)
Medina, Hejaz, Arabia
(present-day Saudi Arabia)
Resting place
Green Dome at al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina
(present-day Saudi Arabia)

Other names
Years active
583–609 CE as merchant
609–632 CE as religious leader
Notable workConstitution of Medina
SuccessorSuccession to Muhammad
Spouse(s)
Muhammad's wives Married
Khadija bint Khuwaylid595–619
Sawda bint Zamʿa619–632
Aisha bint Abi Bakr619–632
Hafsa bint Umar624–632
Zaynab bint Khuzayma625–627
Hind bint Abi Umayya625–632
Zaynab bint Jahsh627–632
Juwayriyya bint al-Harith628–632
Ramla bint Abi Sufyan628–632
Rayhana bint Zayd629–631
Safiyya bint Huyayy629–632
Maymunah bint al-Harith630–632
Maria al-Qibtiyya630–632
ChildrenChildren
Parent(s)Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (father)
Aminah bint Wahb (mother)
RelativesFamily tree of Muhammad, Ahl al-Bayt  ("Family of the House")
Arabic name
Personal (Ism)Muhammad
Patronymic (Nasab)Muḥammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai ibn Kilab
Teknonymic (Kunya)Abu al-Qasim
Epithet (Laqab)Khātim an-Nâbîyīn (Seal of the prophets)
Signature
Muhammad Seal.svg
Seal of Muhammad

Muhammad[n 1] (Arabic: مُحمّد‎; pronounced [muħammad];[n 2] c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)[1] was the founder of Islam.[2] According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet and God's messenger, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[2][3][4][5] He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.[n 3] Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Born in approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at six years old.[6] ; he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib and Abu Talib's wife Fatimah bint Asad.[7] Periodically, he would seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave,[8][9] where he stated he received his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610,[10] Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly,[11] proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to God[12] is the right course of action (dīn),[13] and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.[14][15][16]

Muhammad gained few early followers, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) later in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent wars with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.[17][18]

The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. "Sign [of God]"), which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).

Quranic names and appellations

The name Muhammad written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy

The name Muhammad (d/)[19] means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran.[20] The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations; prophet, messenger, servant of God ('abd), announcer (bashir),[2:119] witness (shahid),[33:45] bearer of good tidings (mubashshir), warner (nathir),[11:2] reminder (mudhakkir),[88:21] one who calls [unto God] (dā'ī),[12:108] light personified (noor),[05:15] and the light-giving lamp (siraj munir).[33:46] Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped (73:1 and the shrouded (74:1.[21] In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets.[22] The Quran also refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy" (Arabic: أحمد‎, Sura 61:6).[23]

The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim,[24] begins with the kunya[25] Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of.[26]

Other Languages
Acèh: Muhammad
Afrikaans: Mohammed
Alemannisch: Mohammed
አማርኛ: መሐመድ
Ænglisc: Mahomet
العربية: محمد
aragonés: Mahoma
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܘܚܡܕ
অসমীয়া: মুহাম্মাদ
asturianu: Mahoma
Avañe'ẽ: Maóma
azərbaycanca: Məhəmməd
تۆرکجه: محمد
bamanankan: Muhammed
Bân-lâm-gú: Muhammad
беларуская: Магамет
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мухамад
भोजपुरी: मुहम्मद
Bikol Central: Mahoma
Bislama: Muhammed
български: Мохамед
བོད་ཡིག: མུ་ཧ་མད།
bosanski: Muhammed
brezhoneg: Mahomed
буряад: Мухаммед
català: Mahoma
Cebuano: Mahoma
čeština: Mohamed
Chi-Chewa: Muhammad
corsu: Magumetu
Cymraeg: Muhammad
dansk: Muhammed
Deutsch: Mohammed
ދިވެހިބަސް: މުޙައްމަދުގެފާނު
eesti: Muḩammad
Ελληνικά: Μωάμεθ
español: Mahoma
Esperanto: Mohamedo
estremeñu: Mahoma
euskara: Mahoma
فارسی: محمد
Fiji Hindi: Mohammed
føroyskt: Muhammed
français: Mahomet
Frysk: Mohammed
Gaeilge: Mahamad
Gaelg: Mahommad
Gagauz: Muhammed
Gàidhlig: Mohammed
galego: Mahoma
贛語: 穆罕默德
ગુજરાતી: મુહમ્મદ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Muhammad
한국어: 무함마드
Hausa: Muhammad
Hawaiʻi: Mohameka
հայերեն: Մուհամմադ
हिन्दी: मुहम्मद
hrvatski: Muhamed
Ido: Muhamad
Igbo: Muhammad
Ilokano: Mahoma
Bahasa Indonesia: Muhammad
interlingua: Mahomet
Interlingue: Muhamad
isiZulu: Muhammad
íslenska: Múhameð
italiano: Maometto
עברית: מוחמד
Basa Jawa: Muhammad
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮುಹಮ್ಮದ್
ქართული: მაჰმადი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: محمد
қазақша: Мұхаммед
kernowek: Mahomm
Kiswahili: Muhammad
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mahomet
kurdî: Muhemmed
Кыргызча: Мухаммед
Ladino: Muhamad
лезги: Мугьаммад
Latina: Mahometus
latviešu: Muhameds
Lëtzebuergesch: Mohammed
lietuvių: Mahometas
Limburgs: Moeamed
Livvinkarjala: Muhammad
lumbaart: Maumèt
македонски: Мухамед
Malagasy: Mohamady
മലയാളം: മുഹമ്മദ്
Malti: Muħammed
მარგალური: მაჰმადი
مصرى: محمد
مازِرونی: محمد
Bahasa Melayu: Nabi Muhammad SAW
Baso Minangkabau: Muhammad
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Muhammad
Mirandés: Maomé
монгол: Мухаммед
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မိုဟာမက်
Nāhuatl: Mahoma
Nederlands: Mohammed
Nedersaksies: Mohammed
नेपाली: मोहम्मद
नेपाल भाषा: मुहम्मद
Napulitano: Mametto
нохчийн: Мухьаммад
norsk: Muhammed
norsk nynorsk: Muhammed
occitan: Maomet
олык марий: Мохаммад
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମହମ୍ମଦ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Muhammad
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੁਹੰਮਦ
Pangasinan: Mahoma
پنجابی: محمد
پښتو: محمد
Patois: Muhammad
Piemontèis: Maomet
Plattdüütsch: Mohammed
polski: Mahomet
português: Maomé
Qaraqalpaqsha: Muxammed
qırımtatarca: Muhammed (peyğamber)
română: Mahomed
Runa Simi: Muhamad
русиньскый: Могамед
русский: Мухаммед
саха тыла: Муhаммед
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱩᱦᱟᱢᱢᱚᱫᱽ
संस्कृतम्: मुहम्मद्
sardu: Maoma
Scots: Muhammad
shqip: Muhammedi
sicilianu: Maumettu
Simple English: Muhammad
سنڌي: محمد
slovenčina: Mohamed
slovenščina: Mohamed
ślůnski: Mahůmet
Soomaaliga: Nebi Maxamed c.s
کوردی: محەممەد
српски / srpski: Мухамед
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Muhamed
Basa Sunda: Muhammad
suomi: Muhammed
svenska: Muhammed
Tagalog: Muhammad
Taqbaylit: Muḥemmed
татарча/tatarça: Мөхәммәт пәйгамбәр
тоҷикӣ: Муҳаммад
Türkçe: Muhammed
українська: Магомет
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مۇھەممەد ئەلەيھىسسالام
Vahcuengh: Muhamed
vèneto: Maometo
Tiếng Việt: Muhammad
Võro: Muhamed
walon: Mawoumet
Winaray: Mohammed
Wolof: Mohammed
吴语: 穆罕默德
ייִדיש: מוכאמאד
粵語: 模罕默德
Zazaki: Mıhemmed
Zeêuws: Mohammed
žemaitėška: Mahuomets
中文: 穆罕默德
Kabɩyɛ: Mahomet
Lingua Franca Nova: Muhammad