Moscow

Moscow
Mосква (Russian)
—   Federal city  —

Clockwise from top left: Cathedral of Christ the Saviour; Spasskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin; MIBC; Red Square; Bolshoi Theatre; and Moscow State University.

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: ' My Moscow
Coordinates: 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750; 37.617
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Central [1]
Economic region Central [2]
Established Before 1147 [3]
Federal city Day The second weekend of September [4]
Government (as of July, 2014)
 •  Mayor [5] Sergey Sobyanin ( UR) [5]
 • Legislature City Duma [6]
Statistics
Area  [7]
 • Total 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)
Area rank 83rd
Population (2017 est.)
 • Total 13,197,596 ( permanent residents within city limits)
15,300,000 (estimated total within city limits)
17,900,000 ( Urban Area)
Combined population of Moscow Federal City and The Population in Moscow metropol areas is 20,561,194 [8] [9]
Time zone(s) MSK ( UTC+03:00) [10]
ISO 3166-2 RU-MOW
License plates 77, 177, 777; 97, 197, 797; 99, 199, 799
Official languages Russian [11]
Official website
Historic city centre

Moscow ( / or /; Russian: Москва́, tr. Moskva; IPA:  [mɐˈskva]) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city.

Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. By broader definitions Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 15th largest urban area, and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, [12] Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, and is also one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index.

Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth. It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe; the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe; and the Moscow International Business Center. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers (421 to 970 sq mi), and it gained an additional population of 233,000 people. [13] [14]

Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city. The city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its brightly coloured domes. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012. The city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.

Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress that is today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are also one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament (the State Duma and the Federation Council) also sit in the city. Moscow is considered the centre of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists, scientists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums, academic and political institutions and theatres.

The city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside of Asia in terms of passenger numbers, and the busiest in Europe. It is recognised as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations.

Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome (Третий Рим), The Whitestone One (Белокаменная), The First Throne (Первопрестольная), The Forty Forties (Сорок Сороков), and The Hero City (город-герой). In old Russian the word "Сорок" (forty) also meant a church administrative district, which consisted of about forty churches. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" (moskvich) for male or "москвичка" (moskvichka) for female, rendered in English as Muscovite.

Etymology

The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. [15] [16] Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who originally inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki. It has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term. [17] However there have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. The most linguistically well-grounded and widely accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", [16] [18] [19] so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh. [15] Its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: majjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". [15] [18] There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa. [15] [16] [18]

The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, [15] [16] hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ ( accusative case), Москви, Moskvi ( locative case), Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě ( genitive case). [15] [16] From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, which is a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns.

However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov‎, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, Muskav, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, later it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy and muscovite.

Various other theories (of Celtic, Iranian, Caucasic), having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists. [15] [16]

There has been as well a scholastic etymology that connected the name of Mosoch, a son of Japheth, with the name of the city, so that it was thought that the biblical figure was a forefather of Russians as well as other Slavs. The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, which is mentioned alongside with Mosoch in Ezekiel (38:2–3, 39:1), strengthened up such etymologies. [20]

Other Languages
Acèh: Moskôw
Адыгэбзэ: Мэзкуу
адыгабзэ: Москва
Afrikaans: Moskou
Akan: Moscow
Alemannisch: Moskau
አማርኛ: ሞስኮ
Ænglisc: Moscow
Аҧсшәа: Москва
العربية: موسكو
aragonés: Moscú
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܘܣܩܒܐ
armãneashti: Moscova
arpetan: Moscou
asturianu: Moscú
Avañe'ẽ: Mosku
авар: Москва
Aymar aru: Mosku
azərbaycanca: Moskva
تۆرکجه: موسکو
bamanankan: Moscow
বাংলা: মস্কো
Bân-lâm-gú: Moskva
башҡортса: Мәскәү
беларуская: Горад Масква
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Масква
भोजपुरी: मास्को
Bikol Central: Mosku
Bislama: Moskow
български: Москва
Boarisch: Moskau
བོད་ཡིག: མོ་སི་ཁོ།
bosanski: Moskva
brezhoneg: Moskov
буряад: Москва
català: Moscou
Чӑвашла: Мускав
Cebuano: Moscow
čeština: Moskva
Chamoru: Moscow
Chi-Chewa: Moscow
chiShona: Moscow
chiTumbuka: Moscow
corsu: Moscù
Cymraeg: Moscfa
dansk: Moskva
Deitsch: Moscow
Deutsch: Moskau
ދިވެހިބަސް: މޮސްކޯ
dolnoserbski: Moskwa
ཇོང་ཁ: མཽས་ཀོ།
eesti: Moskva
Ελληνικά: Μόσχα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Måssca
эрзянь: Москов ош
español: Moscú
Esperanto: Moskvo
estremeñu: Moscú
euskara: Mosku
فارسی: مسکو
Fiji Hindi: Moscow
føroyskt: Moskva
français: Moscou
Frysk: Moskou
Gaeilge: Moscó
Gaelg: Moscow
Gagauz: Moskva
Gàidhlig: Mosgo
galego: Moscova
贛語: 莫斯科
Gĩkũyũ: Moscow
گیلکی: مؤسکؤ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌼𐍉𐍃𐌺𐍅𐌰
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Moskva
한국어: 모스크바
Hausa: Moscow
Hawaiʻi: Mokekao
Հայերեն: Մոսկվա
हिन्दी: मास्को
hornjoserbsce: Moskwa
hrvatski: Moskva
Ido: Moskva
Ilokano: Moscow
Bahasa Indonesia: Moskwa
interlingua: Moscova
Interlingue: Moscva
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᒨᔅᑯ
Ирон: Мæскуы
isiZulu: IMoskwa
íslenska: Moskva
italiano: Mosca (Russia)
עברית: מוסקבה
Basa Jawa: Moskwa
kalaallisut: Moskva
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಾಸ್ಕೋ
къарачай-малкъар: Москва
ქართული: მოსკოვი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: مَسكؤآ
kaszëbsczi: Mòskwa
қазақша: Мәскеу
kernowek: Moskva
Kirundi: Moscou
Kiswahili: Moscow
коми: Мӧскуа
Kongo: Moskva
Kreyòl ayisyen: Moskou
Kurdî: Mosko
Кыргызча: Москва
кырык мары: Москва
Ladino: Mosku
лакку: Москав
лезги: Москва
Latina: Moscua
latviešu: Maskava
Lëtzebuergesch: Moskau
lietuvių: Maskva
Limburgs: Moskou
lingála: Moskú
Livvinkarjala: Moskovu
la .lojban.: moskovas
Luganda: Moosko
lumbaart: Musca (Rüssia)
magyar: Moszkva
मैथिली: मस्को
македонски: Москва
Malagasy: Môsikao
മലയാളം: മോസ്കോ
Malti: Moska
Māori: Mohikau
मराठी: मॉस्को
მარგალური: მოსკოვი
مصرى: موسكو
مازِرونی: موسکو
Bahasa Melayu: Moscow
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Moskva
Mirandés: Moscobo
мокшень: Моску
молдовеняскэ: Москова
монгол: Москва
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မော်စကိုမြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Moscow
Nederlands: Moskou
Nedersaksies: Moskou
नेपाली: मस्को
नेपाल भाषा: मस्को
日本語: モスクワ
Napulitano: Mosca
нохчийн: Москва
Nordfriisk: Moskva
Norfuk / Pitkern: Moscow
norsk bokmål: Moskva
norsk nynorsk: Moskva
Nouormand: Moscou
Novial: Moskva
occitan: Moscòu
олык марий: Моско
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମସ୍କୋ
Oromoo: Mooskoo
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Moskva
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਸਕੋ
پنجابی: ماسکو
Papiamentu: Moskou
پښتو: مسکو
Patois: Masko
Перем Коми: Мӧсква
Picard: Moscou
Piemontèis: Mosca
Tok Pisin: Mosko
Plattdüütsch: Moskau
polski: Moskwa
Ποντιακά: Μόσχα
português: Moscovo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Moskva
qırımtatarca: Moskva
reo tahiti: Moscou
română: Moscova
Romani: Moscova
rumantsch: Moscau
Runa Simi: Moskwa
русиньскый: Москва
русский: Москва
саха тыла: Москва
sámegiella: Moskva
Gagana Samoa: Moscow
संस्कृतम्: मास्कोनगरम्
Sängö: Moscow
sardu: Mosca
Scots: Moscow
Seeltersk: Moskau
Sesotho: Moscow
Sesotho sa Leboa: Moscow
shqip: Moska
sicilianu: Mosca (Russia)
සිංහල: මොස්කව්
Simple English: Moscow
SiSwati: Moscow
slovenčina: Moskva
slovenščina: Moskva
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Москъва
ślůnski: Moskwa
Soomaaliga: Moskow
کوردی: مۆسکۆ
српски / srpski: Москва
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Moskva
Basa Sunda: Moskwa
suomi: Moskova
svenska: Moskva
Tagalog: Mosku
தமிழ்: மாஸ்கோ
Taqbaylit: Musku
tarandíne: Mosche
татарча/tatarça: Мәскәү
తెలుగు: మాస్కో
tetun: Moskovu
ไทย: มอสโก
тоҷикӣ: Маскав
lea faka-Tonga: Mosekou
Türkçe: Moskova
Türkmençe: Moskwa
Twi: Moskva
тыва дыл: Москва
удмурт: Муско
українська: Москва
اردو: ماسکو
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Moskwa
Vahcuengh: Moscow
vèneto: Mosca (Rusia)
vepsän kel’: Moskv
Tiếng Việt: Moskva
Volapük: Moskva
Võro: Moskva
walon: Moscou
文言: 莫斯科
West-Vlams: Moskou
Winaray: Moscow
Wolof: Mosku
吴语: 莫斯科
ייִדיש: מאסקווע
Yorùbá: Mọsko
粵語: 莫斯科
Zazaki: Moskowa
Zeêuws: Moskou
žemaitėška: Maskva
中文: 莫斯科
डोटेली: मस्को
Kabɩyɛ: Mɔsɩkʊʊ