Mongolia

State of Mongolia
Монгол Улс
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Anthem: 

Location of  Mongolia  (green)
Location of  Mongolia  (green)
Capital
and largest city
Ulaanbaatar[a]
republic[3][4][5]
• President
Khaltmaagiin Battulga
Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh
LegislatureState Great Khural
Formation
formed 209 BC
formed 1206
December 29, 1911
• Mongolian People's Republic was established
November 26, 1924
• Independence was recognized by Republic of China
January 5, 1946
February 13, 1992
Area
• Total
1,566,000 km2 (605,000 sq mi) (18th)
• Water (%)
0.67[2]
Population
• 2016 estimate
3,081,677[6] (134th)
• Density
1.97[7]/km2 (5.1/sq mi) (238th)
GDP (PPP)2018[8] estimate
• Total
$43 billion
• Per capita
$13,734
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$13 billion
• Per capita
$4,029
Gini (2011)36.5[9]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.741[10]
high · 92nd
CurrencyTögrög (MNT)
Time zoneUTC+7/+8[11]
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8/+9[12]
Date formatyyyy.mm.dd (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+976
ISO 3166 codeMN
Internet TLD.mn, .мон
  1. ^ Also spelled "Ulan Bator".
  2. ^ "Mongolian" denotes nationality, which includes minorities such as Kazakhs or Tuvans, while "Mongol" indicates Mongol ethnicity.

Mongolia (ə/ (About this sound listen); Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China to the south and Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 mi) separates them.

At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated unitary sovereign state in the world, with a population of around 3 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population.

Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture is still integral. The majority of its population are Buddhists. The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups.[2]

The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan.

In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century. By the early 1900s, almost one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks.[13][14] After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty, and in 1921 established de facto independence from the Republic of China. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state.[15] After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.

History

Prehistory and antiquity

Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago.[16] Modern humans reached Mongolia approximately 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. The Khoit Tsenkher Cave[17] in Khovd Province shows lively pink, brown, and red ochre paintings (dated to 20,000 years ago) of mammoths, lynx, bactrian camels, and ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta (21,000 years ago) testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia; Mal'ta is now part of Russia.

Pasture land in Arkhangai Province. Mongolia was the heartland of many nomadic empires.
Mongolian ordos (palaces) were likened to "cities on the move" (Plano Carpini).

Neolithic agricultural settlements (c. 5500–3500 BC), such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag, Bayanzag, and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture (3500–2500 BC); this culture was active to the Khangai Mountains in Central Mongolia. The wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC.[18] Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the later Okunev culture (2nd millennium BC), Andronovo culture (2300–1000 BC) and Karasuk culture (1500–300 BC), culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, and rock paintings.

Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture may have first been introduced from the west or arose independently in the region. The population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, and as europoid in the west.[17] Tocharians (Yuezhi) and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, which is believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; it was found in the Altai, Mongolia.[19] As equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe also shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists (e.g. the Guifang, Shanrong, and Donghu) into China during the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BC) and Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) presaged the age of nomadic empires.

The concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC (recorded in the Hanshu):

7th-century finds found 180 km (112 mi) from Ulaanbaatar. Kept in Ulaanbaatar. A constant theme in Mongolian history is its relations with China.

Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai (Supreme Council), left and right wings, imperial army (Keshig) and the decimal military system. The first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined ethnicity, were brought together by Modu Shanyu to form a confederation in 209 BC. Soon they emerged as the greatest threat to the Qin Dynasty, forcing the latter to construct the Great Wall of China. It was guarded by up to almost 300,000 soldiers during Marshal Meng Tian's tenure, as a means of defense against the destructive Xiongnu raids. The vast Xiongnu empire (209 BC–93 AD) was followed by the Mongolic Xianbei empire (93–234 AD), which also ruled more than the entirety of present-day Mongolia. The Mongolic Rouran Khaganate (330–555), of Xianbei provenance was the first to use "Khagan" as an imperial title. It ruled a massive empire before being defeated by the Göktürks (555–745) whose empire was even bigger.

The Göktürks laid siege to Panticapaeum, present-day Kerch, in 576. They were succeeded by the Uyghur Khaganate (745–840) who were defeated by the Kyrgyz. The Mongolic Khitans, descendants of the Xianbei, ruled Mongolia during the Liao Dynasty (907–1125), after which the Khamag Mongol (1125–1206) rose to prominence.

Lines 3–5 of the memorial inscription of Bilge Khagan (684–737) in central Mongolia summarizes the time of the Khagans:

Middle Ages to early 20th century

Map of Asia
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.

In the chaos of the late 12th century, a chieftain named Temüjin finally succeeded in uniting the Mongol tribes between Manchuria and the Altai Mountains. In 1206, he took the title Genghis Khan, and waged a series of military campaigns – renowned for their brutality and ferocity – sweeping through much of Asia, and forming the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Under his successors it stretched from present-day Poland in the west to Korea in the east, and from Siberia in the north to the Gulf of Oman and Vietnam in the south, covering some 33,000,000 square kilometres (13,000,000 sq mi),[22] (22% of Earth's total land area) and had a population of over 100 million people (about a quarter of Earth's total population at the time). The emergence of Pax Mongolica also significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia during its height.[23][24]

After Genghis Khan's death, the empire was subdivided into four kingdoms or Khanates. These eventually became quasi-independent after the Toluid Civil War (1260–1264), which broke out in a battle for power following Möngke Khan's death in 1259. One of the khanates, the "Great Khaanate", consisting of the Mongol homeland and China, became known as the Yuan dynasty under Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan. He set up his capital in present-day Beijing. After more than a century of power, the Yuan was replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368, and the Mongol court fled to the north. As the Ming armies pursued the Mongols into their homeland, they successfully sacked and destroyed the Mongol capital Karakorum and other cities. Some of these attacks were repelled by the Mongols under Ayushridar and his general Köke Temür.[citation needed]

Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
Castle built in northern Mongolia by Tsogt Taij in 1601.
Tövkhön Monastery built in 1653 by Zanabazar. Here he created the Soyombo script in 1686.

After the expulsion of the Yuan dynasty rulers from China, the Mongols continued to rule their homeland, known as the Northern Yuan dynasty. The next centuries were marked by violent power struggles among various factions, notably the Genghisids and the non-Genghisid Oirats, as well as by several Chinese invasions (such as the five expeditions led by the Yongle Emperor). In the early 15th century, the Oirads under Esen Tayisi gained the upper hand, and raided China in 1449 in a conflict over Esen's right to pay tribute, capturing the Ming emperor in the process. When Esen was murdered in 1454, the Borjigids regained power.[citation needed]

In the early 16th century, Dayan Khan and his khatun Mandukhai reunited the entire Mongol nation under the Genghisids. In the mid-16th century, Altan Khan of the Tümed, a grandson of Dayan Khan – but not a hereditary or legitimate Khan – became powerful. He founded Hohhot in 1557. After he met with the Dalai Lama in 1578, he ordered the introduction of Tibetan Buddhism to Mongolia. (It was the second time this had occurred). Abtai Khan of the Khalkha converted to Buddhism and founded the Erdene Zuu monastery in 1585. His grandson Zanabazar became the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu in 1640. Following the leaders, the entire Mongolian population embraced Buddhism. Each family kept scriptures and Buddha statues on an altar at the north side of their ger (yurt). Mongolian nobles donated land, money and herders to the monasteries. As was typical in states with established religions, the top religious institutions, the monasteries, wielded significant temporal power in addition to spiritual power.[citation needed]

An image of an early 20th-century Oirat caravan, traveling on horseback, possibly to trade goods.

The last Mongol Khan was Ligden Khan in the early 17th century. He came into conflicts with the Manchus over the looting of Chinese cities, and also alienated most Mongol tribes. He died in 1634. By 1636 most Inner Mongolian tribes had submitted to the Manchus, who founded the Qing dynasty. The Khalkha eventually submitted to Qing rule in 1691, thus bringing all of today's Mongolia under Manchu rule. After several wars, the Dzungars (the western Mongols or Oirats) were virtually annihilated during the Qing conquest of Dzungaria in 1757–58.[25]

Some scholars estimate that about 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungar were destroyed by a combination of disease and warfare.[26] Outer Mongolia was given relative autonomy, being administered by the hereditary Genghisid khanates of Tusheet Khan, Setsen Khan, Zasagt Khan and Sain Noyon Khan. The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu of Mongolia had immense de facto authority. The Manchu forbade mass Chinese immigration into the area, which allowed the Mongols to keep their culture. The Oirats who migrated to the Volga steppes in Russia became known as Kalmyks.

The main trade route during this period was the Tea Road through Siberia; it had permanent stations located every 25 to 30 kilometres (16 to 19 mi), each of which was staffed by 5–30 chosen families. Urga (present-day Ulaanbaatar) benefited greatly from this overland trade, as it was the only major settlement in Outer Mongolia used as a stopover point by merchants, officials and travelers on the Tea Road.[citation needed]

Until 1911, the Qing dynasty maintained control of Mongolia with a series of alliances and intermarriages, as well as military and economic measures. Ambans, Manchu "high officials", were installed in Khüree, Uliastai, and Khovd, and the country was divided into numerous feudal and ecclesiastical fiefdoms (which also placed people in power with loyalty to the Qing). Over the course of the 19th century, the feudal lords attached more importance to representation and less importance to the responsibilities towards their subjects. The behaviour of Mongolia's nobility, together with usurious practices by Chinese traders and the collection of imperial taxes in silver instead of animals, resulted in widespread poverty among the nomads. By 1911 there were 700 large and small monasteries in Outer Mongolia; their 115,000 monks made up 21% of the population. Apart from the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, there were 13 other reincarnating high lamas, called 'seal-holding saints' (tamgatai khutuktu), in Outer Mongolia.

Modern history

The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan

With the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia under the Bogd Khaan declared independence. But the newly established Republic of China considered Mongolia to be part of its own territory. Yuan Shikai, the President of the Republic of China, considered the new republic to be the successor of the Qing. Bogd Khaan said that both Mongolia and China had been administered by the Manchu during the Qing, and after the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911, the contract of Mongolian submission to the Manchu had become invalid.[27]

The area controlled by the Bogd Khaan was approximately that of the former Outer Mongolia during the Qing period. In 1919, after the October Revolution in Russia, Chinese troops led by Xu Shuzheng occupied Mongolia. Warfare erupted on the northern border. As a result of the Russian Civil War, the White Russian Lieutenant General Baron Ungern led his troops into Mongolia in October 1920, defeating the Chinese forces in Niislel Khüree (Ulaanbaatar) in early February 1921 with Mongol support.

To eliminate the threat posed by Ungern, Bolshevik Russia decided to support the establishment of a communist Mongolian government and army. This Mongolian army took the Mongolian part of Kyakhta from Chinese forces on March 18, 1921, and on July 6 Russian and Mongolian troops arrived in Khüree. Mongolia declared its independence again on July 11, 1921.[28] As a result, Mongolia was closely aligned with the Soviet Union over the next seven decades.

In 1924, after the Bogd Khaan died of laryngeal cancer[29] or, as some sources claim, at the hands of Russian spies,[30] the country's political system was changed. The Mongolian People's Republic was established. In 1928, Khorloogiin Choibalsan rose to power. The early leaders of the Mongolian People's Republic (1921–1952) were not communists and many of them were Pan-Mongolists. The Soviet Union forcefully established a communist regime in Mongolia by later exterminating Pan-Mongolists. In the 1960s, Soviets recognized the Mongolian People's Party as "real" communists, who took power after the suspicious death of Pan-Mongolist leader Choibalsan.

Khorloogiin Choibalsan instituted collectivisation of livestock, began the destruction of the Buddhist monasteries, and carried out the Stalinist repressions in Mongolia, which resulted in the murders of numerous monks and other leaders. In Mongolia during the 1920s, approximately one-third of the male population were monks. By the beginning of the 20th century, about 750 monasteries were functioning in Mongolia.[31]

In 1930 Soviet Union stopped Buryat migration to the Mongolian People's Republic to prevent Mongolian reunification. All leaders of Mongolia who did not fulfill Stalin's demands to perform Red Terror against Mongolians were executed, including Peljidiin Genden and Anandyn Amar. The Stalinist purges in Mongolia, which began in 1937, killed more than 30,000 people. Choibalsan died suspiciously in the Soviet Union in 1952. Comintern leader Bohumír Šmeral said, "People of Mongolia are not important, the land is important. Mongolian land is larger than England, France and Germany".[32]

Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939

After the Japanese invasion of neighboring Manchuria in 1931, Mongolia was threatened on this front. During the Soviet-Japanese Border War of 1939, the Soviet Union successfully defended Mongolia against Japanese expansionism. Mongolia fought against Japan during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 and during the Soviet–Japanese War in August 1945 to liberate Southern Mongolia from Japan and China.

The February 1945 Yalta Conference provided for the Soviet Union's participation in the Pacific War. One of the Soviet conditions for its participation, put forward at Yalta, was that after the war Outer Mongolia would retain its independence. The referendum took place on October 20, 1945, with (according to official numbers) 100% of the electorate voting for independence.[33]

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, both countries confirmed their mutual recognition on October 6, 1949. However, the Republic of China used its Security Council veto in 1955, to stop the admission of the Mongolian People's Republic to the United Nations on the grounds it recognized all of Mongolia —including Outer Mongolia— as part of China. This was the only time the Republic Of China ever used its veto. Hence, and because of the repeated threats to veto by the ROC, Mongolia did not join the UN until 1961 when the Soviet Union agreed to lift its veto on the admission of Mauritania (and any other newly independent African state), in return for the admission of Mongolia. Faced with pressure from nearly all the other African countries, the ROC relented under protest. Mongolia and Mauritania were both admitted to the UN on 27 October 1961.[34][35][36] (see China and the United Nations)

On January 26, 1952, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal took power in Mongolia after the death of Choibalsan. While Tsedenbal was visiting Moscow in August 1984, his severe illness prompted the parliament to announce his retirement and replace him with Jambyn Batmönkh.

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 strongly influenced Mongolian politics and youth. Its people undertook the peaceful Democratic Revolution in 1990 and the introduction of a multi-party system and a market economy.

A new constitution was introduced in 1992, and the "People's Republic" was dropped from the country's name. The transition to a decentralised economy was often rocky; during the early 1990s the country had to deal with high inflation and food shortages.[citation needed] The first election victories for non-communist parties came in 1993 (presidential elections) and 1996 (parliamentary elections). China has supported Mongolia's application for membership in to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and granting it observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.[37]

Other Languages
Acèh: Mongolia
Адыгэбзэ: Монгол
адыгабзэ: Монголие
Afrikaans: Mongolië
Alemannisch: Mongolei
አማርኛ: ሞንጎልያ
Ænglisc: Mongolland
العربية: منغوليا
aragonés: Mongolia
arpetan: Mongolie
অসমীয়া: মংগোলিয়া
asturianu: Mongolia
Avañe'ẽ: Mongólia
azərbaycanca: Monqolustan
تۆرکجه: موغولیستان
Bân-lâm-gú: Bông-kó͘
башҡортса: Монголия
беларуская: Манголія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Манголія
भोजपुरी: मंगोलिया
Bikol Central: Mongolya
български: Монголия
Boarisch: Mongolei
བོད་ཡིག: སོག་ཡུལ།
bosanski: Mongolija
brezhoneg: Mongolia
буряад: Монгол Улас
català: Mongòlia
Чӑвашла: Монголи
Cebuano: Mongolia
čeština: Mongolsko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Mongolia
chiShona: Mongolia
chiTumbuka: Mongolia
corsu: Mungolia
Cymraeg: Mongolia
dansk: Mongoliet
davvisámegiella: Mongolia
Deutsch: Mongolei
ދިވެހިބަސް: މޮންގޯލިއާ
dolnoserbski: Mongolska
डोटेली: मङ्गोलिया
ཇོང་ཁ: སོག་པོ་
eesti: Mongoolia
Ελληνικά: Μογγολία
español: Mongolia
Esperanto: Mongolio
estremeñu: Mongolia
euskara: Mongolia
eʋegbe: Mongolia
فارسی: مغولستان
Fiji Hindi: Mongolia
føroyskt: Mongolia
français: Mongolie
Frysk: Mongoalje
Gaeilge: An Mhongóil
Gaelg: Yn Vongoil
Gagauz: Mongoliya
Gàidhlig: Mongòilia
galego: Mongolia
ГӀалгӀай: Моалойче
Gĩkũyũ: Mongolia
ગુજરાતી: મંગોલિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: मंगोलिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mùng-kú
한국어: 몽골
Hausa: Mangolia
Hawaiʻi: Monokolia
հայերեն: Մոնղոլիա
हिन्दी: मंगोलिया
hornjoserbsce: Mongolska
hrvatski: Mongolija
Ilokano: Mongolia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মঙ্গোলিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Mongolia
interlingua: Mongolia
Interlingue: Mongolia
Ирон: Мангол
íslenska: Mongólía
italiano: Mongolia
עברית: מונגוליה
Basa Jawa: Mongolia
Kabɩyɛ: Moŋgolii
kalaallisut: Mongolia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಂಗೋಲಿಯ
Kapampangan: Mongolia
ქართული: მონღოლეთი
kaszëbsczi: Mòngolskô
қазақша: Моңғолия
kernowek: Mongoli
Kinyarwanda: Mongoliya
Kiswahili: Mongolia
Kongo: Mongolia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mongoli
kurdî: Mongolya
Кыргызча: Монголия
кырык мары: Монголи
Ladino: Mongolia
لۊری شومالی: موغولئستان
Latina: Mongolia
latviešu: Mongolija
Lëtzebuergesch: Mongolei
лезги: Монголия
lietuvių: Mongolija
Ligure: Mongòllia
Limburgs: Mongolië
lingála: Mongolí
Lingua Franca Nova: Mongol
Livvinkarjala: Mongoulii
la .lojban.: mongolo
lumbaart: Mungolia
magyar: Mongólia
मैथिली: मङ्गोलिया
македонски: Монголија
Malagasy: Mongolia
മലയാളം: മംഗോളിയ
Māori: Mongōria
मराठी: मंगोलिया
მარგალური: მონღოლეთი
مازِرونی: موغولئون
Bahasa Melayu: Mongolia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mùng-gū
Mirandés: Mongólia
мокшень: Монголие
монгол: Монгол улс
Nāhuatl: Mongolia
Dorerin Naoero: Mongoriya
Nederlands: Mongolië
Nedersaksies: Mongolië
नेपाली: मङ्गोलिया
नेपाल भाषा: मंगोलिया
日本語: モンゴル国
нохчийн: Монголи
Nordfriisk: Mongolei
Norfuk / Pitkern: Mongoelya
norsk: Mongolia
norsk nynorsk: Mongolia
Nouormand: Mongolie
Novial: Mongolia
occitan: Mongolia
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମଙ୍ଗୋଲିଆ
Oromoo: Mongooliyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mongoliya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੰਗੋਲੀਆ
پنجابی: منگولیا
Papiamentu: Mongolia
Patois: Mangguolia
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ម៉ុងហ្គោលី
Picard: Mongolie
Piemontèis: Mongòlia
Plattdüütsch: Mongolei
polski: Mongolia
português: Mongólia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mongoliya
qırımtatarca: Moğolistan
română: Mongolia
Runa Simi: Mungul suyu
русиньскый: Монґолія
русский: Монголия
саха тыла: Монголия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱚᱝᱜᱚᱞᱤᱭᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Mogitolia
संस्कृतम्: मंगोलिया
sardu: Mongòlia
Scots: Mongolie
shqip: Mongolia
sicilianu: Mongolia
Simple English: Mongolia
SiSwati: IMongoliya
slovenčina: Mongolsko
slovenščina: Mongolija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Мѫголи
ślůnski: Můngolijo
Soomaaliga: Mongolia
کوردی: مەنگۆلیا
Sranantongo: Mongolikondre
српски / srpski: Монголија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mongolija
Basa Sunda: Mongolia
suomi: Mongolia
svenska: Mongoliet
Tagalog: Mongolia
татарча/tatarça: Монголия
తెలుగు: మంగోలియా
tetun: Mongólia
ትግርኛ: ሞንጎሊያ
тоҷикӣ: Муғулистон
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎹᏂᎪᎵᎠ
Türkçe: Moğolistan
Türkmençe: Mongoliýa
тыва дыл: Моол
удмурт: Монголия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Mongolia
українська: Монголія
اردو: منگولیا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: موڭغۇلىيە
Vahcuengh: Mungzguj
vèneto: Mongołia
vepsän kel’: Mongolii
Tiếng Việt: Mông Cổ
Volapük: Mongolän
Võro: Mongoolia
文言: 蒙古國
West-Vlams: Mongoolje
Winaray: Mongolya
Wolof: Mongoli
吴语: 蒙古国
ייִדיש: מאנגאליי
Yorùbá: Mòngólíà
粵語: 蒙古國
Zazaki: Moğolıstan
Zeêuws: Monholië
žemaitėška: Monguolėjė
中文: 蒙古国