Mole (unit)

Unit system SI base unit
Unit of Amount of substance
Symbol mol 

The mole is the base unit for the amount of substance in the International System of Units (SI). The unit is defined as the amount of a chemical substance that contains as many representative particles, e.g., atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, or photons, as there are atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12 (12C), the isotope of carbon with standard atomic weight 12 by definition. This number is expressed by the Avogadro constant, which has a value of approximately 6.022140857×1023 mol−1, which is just over 602 sextillion ( thousand million million million). The mole is one of the base units of the SI, and has the unit symbol mol.

The mole is widely used in chemistry as a convenient way to express amounts of reactants and products of chemical reactions. For example, the chemical equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O implies that 2 moles of dihydrogen (H2) and 1 mole of dioxygen (O2) react to form 2 moles of water (H2O). The mole may also be used to express the number of atoms, ions, or other elementary entities in a given sample of any substance. The concentration of a solution is commonly expressed by its molarity, defined as the number of moles of the dissolved substance per litre of solution.

The number of molecules per mole is known as Avogadro's constant, and is defined such that the mass of one mole of a substance, expressed in grams, is equal to the mean relative molecular mass of the substance. For example, the mean relative molecular mass of natural water is about 18.015, therefore, one mole of water has a mass of about 18.015 grams.

The term gram-molecule was formerly used for essentially the same concept. [1] The term gram-atom has been used for a related but distinct concept, namely a quantity of a substance that contains Avogadro's number of atoms, whether isolated or combined in molecules. Thus, for example, 1 mole of MgBr2 is 1 gram-molecule of MgBr2 but 3 gram-atoms of MgBr2. [2] [3]

In honor of the unit, some chemists celebrate October 23, which is a reference to the 1023 scale of the Avogadro constant, as " Mole Day". Some also do the same for February 6 and June 2, in reference to the multiplier 6.02 of the Avogadro constant.

Definition and related concepts

As of 2011, the mole is defined by International Bureau of Weights and Measures to be the amount of substance of a system which contains the same number of elementary entities (e.g. atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, photons) as atoms in 0.012 kilograms of carbon-12 (12C), the isotope of carbon with standard atomic weight 12. [1] Thus, by definition, one mole of pure 12C has a mass of exactly 12  g. It also follows from the definition that X moles of any substance will contain the same number of molecules as X moles of any other substance (though their masses may be different).

The mass per mole of a substance is called its molar mass. Since the atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as 1/12 of the mass of the 12C atom, it follows that the molar mass of a substance, measured in grams per mole, is numerically equal to its mean atomic or molecular mass measured in amu.

The number of elementary entities in a sample of a substance is technically called its (chemical) amount. Therefore, the mole is a convenient unit for that physical quantity. One can determine the chemical amount of a known substance, in moles, by dividing the sample's mass by the substance's molar mass. [4] Other methods include the use of the molar volume or the measurement of electric charge. [4]

The mass of one mole of a substance depends not only on its molecular formula, but also on the proportion of the isotopes of each element present in it. For example, one mole of calcium-40 is 39.96259098 ± 0.00000022 grams, whereas one mole of calcium-42 is 41.95861801 ± 0.00000027 grams, and one mole of calcium with the normal isotopic mix is 40.078 ± 0.004 grams.

Since the definition of the gram is not (as of 2011) mathematically tied to that of the atomic mass unit, the number NA of molecules in a mole (Avogadro's number) must be determined experimentally. The value adopted by CODATA in 2010 is NA = 6.02214129×1023 ± 0.00000027×1023. [5] In 2011 the measurement was refined to 6.02214078×1023 ± 0.00000018×1023. [6]

The number of moles of a sample is the sample mass divided by the molar mass of the material.

Other Languages
العربية: مول
asturianu: Mol
azərbaycanca: Mol
Bân-lâm-gú: Mol
беларуская: Моль
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Моль
български: Мол
བོད་ཡིག: མོལ།
bosanski: Mol (jedinica)
brezhoneg: Mol
català: Mol
Чӑвашла: Моль
čeština: Mol
Cymraeg: Môl (uned)
Deutsch: Mol
eesti: Mool
Ελληνικά: Γραμμομόριο
español: Mol
Esperanto: Molaro (kemio)
euskara: Mol
فارسی: مول
français: Mole (unité)
Gaeilge: Mól
galego: Mol
한국어: 몰 (단위)
Հայերեն: Մոլ
हिन्दी: मोल (इकाई)
Bahasa Indonesia: Mol
íslenska: Mól
italiano: Mole
עברית: מול
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮೋಲ್
ქართული: მოლი
қазақша: Моль
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mòl
Kurdî: Mol
Кыргызча: Моль
latviešu: Mols
Lëtzebuergesch: Mol
lietuvių: Molis (vienetas)
Ligure: Mole
magyar: Mól
македонски: Мол (единица)
मराठी: मोल (एकक)
Bahasa Melayu: Mol
монгол: Моль
Nederlands: Mol (eenheid)
日本語: モル
Nordfriisk: Mol
norsk nynorsk: Mol
occitan: Mòl (unitat)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੋਲ (ਇਕਾਈ)
پنجابی: مول
Piemontèis: Mòle
Plattdüütsch: Mol (Eenheit)
polski: Mol
português: Mol
română: Mol
русиньскый: Мол
русский: Моль
සිංහල: මවුලය
Simple English: Mole (unit)
slovenčina: Mol (jednotka SI)
slovenščina: Mol (enota)
Soomaaliga: Mole
српски / srpski: Мол (јединица)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mol (jedinica)
suomi: Mooli
svenska: Mol
Tagalog: Mole (yunit)
தமிழ்: மோல்
татарча/tatarça: Моль
ไทย: โมล
Türkçe: Mol (birim)
українська: Моль (одиниця)
Tiếng Việt: Mol
文言: 摩爾
Winaray: Mol
粵語: 摩爾