Moldova

Republic of Moldova

Republica Moldova  (Romanian)
Anthem: "Limba Noastră"
(English: "Our Language")
Location of Moldova (green) and Transnistria (light green) in Europe.
Location of Moldova (green) and
Transnistria (light green) in Europe.
Location of Moldova
Capital
and largest city
Chișinău
47°0′N 28°55′E / 47°0′N 28°55′E / 47.000; 28.917
Official languagesRomanian (also named Moldovan)a[1][2][3]
Recognised minority
languages
Inter-ethnic languagesRussian[4][5][6]
Ethnic groups
(2014; excluding Transnistria)
75.1% Moldovan
7.0% Romanian
6.6% Ukrainian
4.6% Gagauz
4.1% Russian
1.9% Bulgarian
0.36% Romani
0.07% Poles
0.89% other
Demonym(s)Moldovan
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Igor Dodon
Maia Sandu
Zinaida Greceanîi
LegislatureParliament
Formation
1346
1812
15 December 1917
9 April 1918
12 October 1924
2 August 1940
27 August 1991b
2 March 1992
• Constitution adopted
29 July 1994
Area
• Including Transnistria
33,846 km2 (13,068 sq mi) (135th)
• Water (%)
1.4 (including Transnistria)
• Excluding Transnistria
29,683 km2 (11,461 sq mi)
Population
• 2019-01-01 estimate
Decrease 2,681,735 [7]
(excludes Transnistria) (138rd)
• Density
90.5/km2 (234.4/sq mi) (93th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$27.271 billion
• Per capita
$7,700[8]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$12.037 billion
• Per capita
$3,399[8]
Gini (2014)Positive decrease 26.8[9]
low
HDI (2017)Increase 0.700[10]
high · 112th
CurrencyLeu (MDL)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+373
ISO 3166 codeMD
Internet TLDwww.moldova.md Edit this at Wikidata
  1. As determined by the Moldovan Declaration of Independence, which the Constitutional court of Moldova found to take precedence over Article 13 of the Constitution, which uses the name "Moldovan".[1]
  2. Date of proclamation. Independence subsequently finalized with the dissolution of the USSR in December 1991.

Moldova (ə/ (About this soundlisten), sometimes UK: ə/),[11][12][13] officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe,[14] bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south.[15] The capital city is Chișinău.

Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal state) and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became an autonomous state within the Russian Republic, known as the Moldavian Democratic Republic. In February 1918, the Moldavian Democratic Republic declared independence and then integrated into Romania later that year following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 established, within the Ukrainian SSR, a Moldavian autonomous republic (MASSR) on partially Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of Bessarabia. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR), which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR (east of the Dniester River).

On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was underway, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova.[16] The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994. The strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990.

Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP. Its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms[15][17] and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is also the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad.[18]

Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).

Etymology

The name Moldova is derived from the Moldova River; the valley of this river served as a political centre at the time of the foundation of the Principality of Moldavia in 1359.[19] The origin of the name of the river remains unclear. According to a legend recounted by Moldavian chroniclers Dimitrie Cantemir and Grigore Ureche, Prince Dragoș named the river after hunting an aurochs: following the chase, the prince's exhausted hound Molda drowned in the river. The dog's name, given to the river, extended to the Principality.[20]

For a short time in the 1990s, at the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the name of the current Republic of Moldova was also spelled Moldava.[21] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the country began to use the Romanian name, Moldova. Officially, the name Republic of Moldova is designated by the United Nations.

Other Languages
Acèh: Moldova
Адыгэбзэ: Молдавиэ
адыгабзэ: Молдавие
Afrikaans: Moldowa
Alemannisch: Moldawien
አማርኛ: ሞልዶቫ
Ænglisc: Moldofa
Аҧсшәа: Молдова
العربية: مولدوفا
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܘܠܕܘܒܐ
armãneashti: Moldova
asturianu: Moldavia
Avañe'ẽ: Moyndávia
авар: Молдов
azərbaycanca: Moldova
تۆرکجه: مولداوی
বাংলা: মলদোভা
Bân-lâm-gú: Moldova
башҡортса: Молдова
беларуская: Малдова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Малдова
भोजपुरी: मोल्डोवा
Bikol Central: Moldoba
Bislama: Moldova
български: Молдова
Boarisch: Moidowien
བོད་ཡིག: མོལ་དོ་ཝ།
bosanski: Moldavija
brezhoneg: Moldova
буряад: Молдави
Чӑвашла: Молдова
Cebuano: Moldabya
čeština: Moldavsko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Moldavia
chiShona: Moldova
chiTumbuka: Moldova
corsu: Moldavia
Cymraeg: Moldofa
dansk: Moldova
davvisámegiella: Moldova
ދިވެހިބަސް: މޮލްޑޯވާ
dolnoserbski: Moldawska
डोटेली: मोल्दोभा
eesti: Moldova
Ελληνικά: Μολδαβία
español: Moldavia
estremeñu: Moldávia
euskara: Moldavia
eʋegbe: Moldova
فارسی: مولداوی
Fiji Hindi: Moldova
føroyskt: Moldova
français: Moldavie
Frysk: Moldaavje
Fulfulde: Moldowa
furlan: Moldavie
Gaeilge: An Mholdóiv
Gaelg: Moldova
Gagauz: Moldova
Gàidhlig: Moldàibhia
galego: Moldavia
ગુજરાતી: મોલ્દોવા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: मोल्दोव्हा
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Moldova
한국어: 몰도바
Hawaiʻi: Molodowa
հայերեն: Մոլդովա
हिन्दी: मॉल्डोवा
hornjoserbsce: Moldawska
hrvatski: Moldavija
Ido: Moldova
Igbo: Moldova
Ilokano: Moldovia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মোলদোভা
Bahasa Indonesia: Moldova
interlingua: Moldova
Interlingue: Moldavia
Ирон: Молдави
íslenska: Moldóva
italiano: Moldavia
עברית: מולדובה
Jawa: Moldova
Kabɩyɛ: Mɔlɩdaavii
kalaallisut: Moldova
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಾಲ್ಡೋವ
Kapampangan: Moldabya
къарачай-малкъар: Молдавия
ქართული: მოლდოვა
kaszëbsczi: Mòłdawiô
қазақша: Молдова
kernowek: Moldova
Kinyarwanda: Molidova
Kiswahili: Moldova
коми: Молдова
Kongo: Moldova
Kreyòl ayisyen: Moldavi
kurdî: Moldova
Кыргызча: Молдова
кырык мары: Молдави
Ladino: Moldova
latgaļu: Moldaveja
Latina: Moldavia
latviešu: Moldova
Lëtzebuergesch: Moldawien
лезги: Молдова
lietuvių: Moldavija
Ligure: Moldavia
Limburgs: Moldavië
lingála: Moldova
Lingua Franca Nova: Moldova
Livvinkarjala: Molduavii
la .lojban.: moldovas
lumbaart: Muldavia
magyar: Moldova
मैथिली: मोल्डोवा
македонски: Молдавија
Malagasy: Môldavia
മലയാളം: മൊൾഡോവ
Malti: Moldova
Māori: Morotawa
მარგალური: მოლდოვა
مصرى: مولدوڤا
مازِرونی: مولداوی
Bahasa Melayu: Moldova
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Moldova
мокшень: Молдова
монгол: Молдав
Dorerin Naoero: Ripubrikin Mordowa
Nederlands: Moldavië (land)
Nedersaksies: Moldavië (laand)
नेपाली: मोल्डोभा
नेपाल भाषा: मोल्दोवा
日本語: モルドバ
нохчийн: Молдави
Nordfriisk: Moldaawien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Moldoewa
norsk: Moldova
norsk nynorsk: Moldova
Nouormand: Moldova
Novial: Moldova
олык марий: Молдова
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମୋଲ୍ଡୋଭା
Oromoo: Moldoovaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Moldova
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੋਲਦੋਵਾ
Pangasinan: Moldavia
پنجابی: مولڈوا
Papiamentu: Moldova
Patois: Molduova
Перем Коми: Молдова
Picard: Moldavie
Piemontèis: Moldavia
Plattdüütsch: Moldawien
polski: Mołdawia
Ποντιακά: Μολδαβία
português: Moldávia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Moldaviya
qırımtatarca: Moldova
romani čhib: Moldova
rumantsch: Moldavia
Runa Simi: Mulduwa
русиньскый: Молдавія
русский: Молдавия
саха тыла: Молдова
Gagana Samoa: Moldova
संस्कृतम्: मोल्दोवा
sardu: Moldàvia
Scots: Moldovae
Seeltersk: Moldawien
Sesotho: Moldova
shqip: Moldavia
sicilianu: Moldavia
Simple English: Moldova
SiSwati: IMolidiva
slovenčina: Moldavsko
slovenščina: Moldavija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Молдова
ślůnski: Mołdawijo
Soomaaliga: Moldofa
کوردی: مۆلدۆڤا
Sranantongo: Moldavikondre
српски / srpski: Молдавија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Moldavija
Basa Sunda: Moldova
suomi: Moldova
svenska: Moldavien
Tagalog: Moldova
தமிழ்: மல்தோவா
Taqbaylit: Muldavya
tarandíne: Moldavie
татарча/tatarça: Молдова Җөмһүрияте
తెలుగు: మోల్డోవా
tetun: Moldávia
ትግርኛ: ሞልዶቫ
тоҷикӣ: Молдова
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎹᎵᏙᏫᎠ
Türkçe: Moldova
Türkmençe: Moldowa
удмурт: Молдавия
українська: Молдова
اردو: مالدووا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مولدوۋا
Vahcuengh: Moldova
vèneto: Moldavia
vepsän kel’: Moldov
Tiếng Việt: Moldova
Volapük: Moldavän
Võro: Moldova
文言: 摩爾多瓦
West-Vlams: Moldoavië
Winaray: Moldavia
Wolof: Moldaawi
吴语: 摩尔多瓦
Xitsonga: Moldova
ייִדיש: מאלדאווע
Yorùbá: Móldófà
粵語: 摩爾多瓦
Zazaki: Moldova
Zeêuws: Moldâvië
žemaitėška: Moldavėjė
中文: 摩尔多瓦