Mohammad Khatami

Mohammad Khatami
Mohammad Khatami, 30th Memorial Ceremony of Ali Shariati - 26 June 2007 (15 8603310160 L600).jpg
5th President of Iran
In office
3 August 1997 – 3 August 2005
Supreme LeaderAli Khamenei
First Vice PresidentHassan Habibi
Mohammad Reza Aref
Preceded byAkbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Succeeded byMahmoud Ahmadinejad
Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance
In office
12 September 1982 – 24 May 1992
PresidentAli Khamenei
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Prime MinisterMir-Hossein Mousavi
Preceded byMir-Hossein Mousavi (acting)
Succeeded byAli Larijani
Member of the Parliament of Iran
In office
28 May 1980 – 24 August 1982
Preceded byManouchehr Yazdi
Succeeded byMohammad Hosseininejad
ConstituencyYazd, Ardakan district
Majority40,112 (82.1%)[1]
Personal details
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami

(1943-10-14) 14 October 1943 (age 75)
Ardakan, Yazd Province, Iran
Political partyAssociation of Combatant Clerics
Spouse(s)Zohreh Sadeghi (m. 1974)
RelationsMohammad-Reza Khatami (brother)
Ali Khatami (brother)
Zahra Eshraghi (sister-in-law)
Mohammad Reza Tabesh (nephew)
ParentsRuhollah Khatami (father)
Sakineh Ziaee (mother)
Alma materUniversity of Isfahan
University of Tehran
SignatureOfficial website
Military service
Service/branchIranian Imperial Army[2]
Years of service1969–1971[2]
RankSecond lieutenant; Financial specialist[2]
UnitTehran region 3 sustainment[2]

Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian: سید محمد خاتمی‎, pronounced [ sejˈjed mohæmˈmæde xɒːtæˈmiː] (About this soundlisten); born 14 October 1943)[3][4][5][6] is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician. He served as the fifth President of Iran from 3 August 1997 to 3 August 2005. He also served as Iran's Minister of Culture from 1982 to 1992. He was an outspoken critic of former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's government.[7][8][9][10]

Little known until that point, Khatami attracted global attention during his first election to the presidency when he received almost 70% of the vote.[11] Khatami had run on a platform of liberalization and reform. During his two terms as president, Khatami advocated freedom of expression, tolerance and civil society, constructive diplomatic relations with other states including those in Asia and the European Union, and an economic policy that supported a free market and foreign investment.

Khatami is known for his proposal of Dialogue Among Civilizations. The United Nations proclaimed the year 2001 as the United Nations' Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations, on Khatami's suggestion.[12][13]

On 8 February 2009, Khatami announced that he would run in the 2009 presidential election.[14] On 16 March, he announced he was withdrawing from the race in favor of his long-time friend and adviser, former Prime Minister of Iran, Mir-Hossein Mousavi.[15]

In October 2009, the award committee of the Global Dialogue Prize[16] declared Dariush Shayegan and Mohammad Khatami as joint winners of the inaugural award, "for their work in developing and promoting the concept of a 'dialogue among cultures and civilizations' as new paradigm of cultural subjectivity and as new paradigm of international relations". The Global Dialogue Prize is one of the world's most significant recognitions for research in the Humanities, honoring "excellence in research and research communication on the conditions and content of a global intercultural dialogue on values".[17] In January 2010, Mohammad Khatami stated that "he was not in the position to accept the award", and the prize was given to Dariush Shayegan alone.[18] Currently the Iranian media are forbidden on the orders of Tehran's prosecutor from publishing pictures of Khatami, or quoting his words, on account of his support for the defeated reformist candidates in the disputed 2009 re-election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[19]

Early life and education

Ruhollah Khatami (father) and Mohammad in childhood.

Khatami was born on 14 October 1943, in the small town of Ardakan, in Yazd Province. Khatami holds the title of Sayyid, which means that he is a direct patrilineal descent from Muhammad. He married Zohreh Sadeghi, daughter of a famous professor of religious law, and niece of Musa al-Sadr, in 1974 (at the age of 31). They have two daughters and one son: Laila (born 1975), Narges (born 1980), and Emad (born 1988).

Khatami's father, the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khatami, was a high-ranking cleric and the Khatib (the one who delivers the sermon for Friday prayers) in the city of Yazd in the early years of the Iranian Revolution. Like his father, Khatami rose to local prominence when he became an Ayatollah.

Khatami's brother, Mohammad-Reza Khatami, was elected as Tehran's first member of parliament in the 6th term of parliament, during which he served as deputy speaker of the parliament. He also served as the secretary-general of Islamic Iran Participation Front (Iran's largest reformist party) for several years. Mohammad Reza is married to Zahra Eshraghi, granddaughter of Ruhollah Khomeini (founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran) who is a feminist human rights activist.

Khatami's other brother, Ali Khatami, a businessman with a master's degree in Industrial Engineering from Polytechnic University in Brooklyn,[20] served as the President's Chief of Staff during President Khatami's second term in office, where he kept an unusually low profile.

Khatami's eldest sister, Fatemeh Khatami, was elected as the first representative of the people of Ardakan (Khatami's hometown) in 1999 city council elections.

Mohammad Khatami is not related to Ahmad Khatami, a hardline cleric and Provisional Friday Prayer Leader of Tehran.[21][22]

Mohammad Khatami in military service uniform

Mohammad Khatami received a B.A. in Western philosophy at Isfahan University, but left academia while studying for a master's degree in educational sciences at Tehran University and went to Qom to complete his previous studies in Islamic sciences. He studied there for seven years and completed the courses to the highest level, Ijtihad. After that, he went to Germany to chair the Islamic Centre in Hamburg from 1978 to 1980.

Before serving as president, Khatami had been a representative in the parliament from 1980 to 1982, supervisor of the Kayhan Institute, Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance (1982–1986), and then for a second term from 1989 to 24 May 1992 (when he resigned), the head of the National Library of Iran from 1992 to 1997, and a member of the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution. He is also a member and chairman of the Central Council of the Association of Combatant Clerics. Besides his native language Persian, Khatami speaks Arabic, English, and German.[23]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Mohammad Khatami
العربية: محمد خاتمي
asturianu: Mohammad Jatamí
azərbaycanca: Məhəmməd Hatəmi
تۆرکجه: محمد خاتمی
беларуская: Махамед Хатамі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Махамад Хатамі
български: Мохамад Хатами
Esperanto: Mohammad Ĥatami
français: Mohammad Khatami
hrvatski: Muhamed Hatami
Bahasa Indonesia: Muhammad Khatami
íslenska: Mohammad Khatami
македонски: Мохамад Катами
مازِرونی: محمد خاتمی
Bahasa Melayu: Mohammad Khatami
Nederlands: Mohammad Khatami
português: Mohammad Khatami
Simple English: Mohammad Khatami
српски / srpski: Мохамед Хатами
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Muhamed Hatami
Türkçe: Muhammed Hatemi
Türkmençe: Muhammet Hatemi
українська: Мохаммад Хатамі
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مۇھەممەد خاتەمى
Tiếng Việt: Mohammad Khatami