Miller

Miller
"Den Hoed", molenaar bij maalbak - Kruiningen - 20128156 - RCE.jpg
Miller at work in the De Hoed, Waarde windmill, in the Netherlands.
Occupation
vocation
Activity sectors
Agriculture
Description
CompetenciesBuying & Selling,
Math, Machine repair,

A miller is a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a cereal crop to make flour. Milling is among the oldest of human occupations. "Miller", "Milne", and other variants are common surnames,[1]:165 as are their equivalents in other languages around the world ("Melnyk" in Ukrainian, "Meunier" in French, "Müller" or "Mueller" in German, "Mulder" and "Molenaar" in Dutch, "Molnár" in Hungarian, "Molinero" in Spanish, "Molinaro" or "Molinari" in Italian etc.). Milling existed in hunter-gatherer communities, and later millers were important to the development of agriculture.

The materials ground by millers are often foodstuffs and particularly grain. The physical grinding of the food allows for the easier digestion of its nutrients and saves wear on the teeth. Non-food substances needed in a fine, powdered form, such as building materials, may be processed by a miller.

Quern-stone

A bedstone and rind. Dalgarven Mill, Scotland.

The most basic tool for a miller was the quern-stone—simply a large, fixed stone as a base and another movable stone operated by hand, similar to a mortar and pestle. As technology and millstones (the bedstone and rynd) improved, more elaborate machines such as watermills and windmills were developed to do the grinding work. These mills harnessed available energy sources including animal, water, wind, and electrical power. Mills are some of the oldest factories in human history, so factories making other items are sometimes known as mills, for example, cotton mills and steel mills. These factory workers are also called millers.

The rynd in pre-reformation Scotland was often carved on millers' gravestones as a symbol of their trade.

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Млынар
brezhoneg: Miliner
català: Moliner
dansk: Møller
italiano: Mugnaio
עברית: טוחן
kaszëbsczi: Młënôrz
magyar: Molnár
Nederlands: Molenaar
Nedersaksies: Mulder
日本語: 製粉
norsk nynorsk: Møllar
português: Moleiro
русский: Мельник
suomi: Mylläri
svenska: Mjölnare
walon: Mônî