Michael (archangel)

Saint Michael the Archangel
Mikharkhangel.jpg
A 13th-century Byzantine icon from Saint Catherine's Monastery
Archangel, Saint
Venerated inJudaism, Christianity, Islam
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Feast
  • November 8 (New Calendar Eastern Orthodox Churches)
  • November 21 (Old Calendar Eastern Orthodox Churches)
  • September 29 ("Michaelmas")
  • May 8 (Tridentine Calendar)
  • 12th of each month in Coptic calendar (Coptic Churches)
  • many other local and historical feasts
AttributesArchangel; Treading on a dragon; carrying a banner, scales, and sword
PatronageProtector of the Jewish people,[1] Guardian of the Catholic Church,[2] Vatican City,[3] Germany, France, Ukraine, Brussels, Kiev, Arkhangelsk, Dumfries, Argao, Cebu, Philippines, Iligan City, Philippines, police officers,[4][5] military, grocers, mariners, paratroopers, firefighters, paramedics, sickness[6]

Saint Michael the Archangel (Hebrew pronunciation: [mixaˈʔel]; Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל‎, translit. Mîkhā'ēl, lit. 'Who is like God?'; Greek: Μιχαήλ, translit. Mikhaḗl; Latin: Michahel; Coptic: ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ; Arabic: ميخائيل‎, translit. Mīkhā'īl) is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran traditions, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox religions, he is called " Saint Michael the Taxiarch"[7][8].

Archangel Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel. The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy.

In the New Testament Michael leads God's armies against Satan's forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifically referred to as "the archangel Michael". Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, and then over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil.

Scriptural references

Hebrew Bible

Guido Reni's Michael (in Santa Maria della Concezione church, Rome, 1636) tramples Satan. A mosaic of the same painting decorates St. Michael's Altar in St. Peter's Basilica.

Michael is mentioned three times in the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament), all in the Book of Daniel. The prophet Daniel experiences a vision after having undergone a period of fasting. Daniel 10:13-21 describes Daniel's vision of an angel who identifies Michael as the protector of Israel.[9] At Daniel 12:1, Daniel is informed that Michael will arise during the "time of the end".[10]

New Testament

Michael archangel by an anonymous Bolivian painter (1708)

The Book of Revelation (12:7-9) describes a war in heaven in which Michael, being stronger, defeats Satan.[11] After the conflict, Satan is thrown to earth along with the fallen angels, where he ("that ancient serpent called the devil") still tries to "lead the whole world astray".[11]

In the Epistle of Jude 1:9, Michael is referred to as an "archangel" when he again confronts Satan.[12]

A reference to an "archangel" also appears in the 4:16. This archangel who heralds the second coming of Christ is not named,[12] but is often associated with Michael (among others).[13][14]

Quran

Michael (Arabic: ميخائيل, Mikhail ميكائيل, Mikail ), is one of the two archangels mentioned in the Quran, alongside Jibrail (Gabriel). In the Quran, Michael is mentioned once only, in Sura 2:98: "Whoever is an enemy to God, and His angels and His messengers, and Jibrail and Mikhail! Then, God (Himself) is an enemy to the disbelievers."[15] Some Muslims believe that the reference in Sura 11:69 is Michael, one of the three angels who visited Abraham.[15]

Other Languages
አማርኛ: ሚካኤል
অসমীয়া: মিকাইল
azərbaycanca: Mikayıl (mələk)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Міхаіл (арханёл)
brezhoneg: Arc'hael Mikael
Cymraeg: Mihangel
eesti: Miikael
فارسی: میکائیل
hrvatski: Sveti Mihael
Bahasa Indonesia: Mikhael
עברית: מיכאל
қазақша: Микаил
Kiswahili: Malaika Mikaeli
kurdî: Mîxayîl
latviešu: Miķelis
македонски: Архангел Михаил
日本語: ミカエル
norsk nynorsk: Erkeengelen Mikael
Nouormand: Saint Miché
پښتو: میکائیل
português: Miguel (arcanjo)
Ripoarisch: Michael (Erzengel)
Simple English: Michael (archangel)
slovenčina: Michal (anjel)
slovenščina: Sveti Mihael
српски / srpski: Архангел Михаил
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mihael (arhanđeo)
తెలుగు: మీకాయీల్
Türkçe: Mikâil
українська: Архангел Михаїл
اردو: میکائیل
中文: 米迦勒