Massachusetts

Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Flag of Massachusetts State seal of Massachusetts
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Bay State
Motto(s): Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem ( Latin)
By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under liberty
State song(s): " All Hail to Massachusetts"
Map of the United States with Massachusetts highlighted
Official language English [1]
Spoken languages
Demonym Bay Stater (official) [3] Massachusite (traditional) [4] [5] Massachusettsian [6]
Capital
( and largest city)
Boston
Largest metro Greater Boston
Area Ranked 44th
 • Total 10,565 [7] sq mi
(27,337 km2)
 • Width 183 miles (295 km)
 • Length 113 miles (182 km)
 • % water 25.7
 • Latitude 41° 14′ N to 42° 53′ N
 • Longitude 69° 56′ W to 73° 30′ W
Population Ranked 15th
 • Total 6,811,779 (2016 est.) [8]
 •  Density 840/sq mi  (324/km2)
[9]
 •  Median household income $67,861 [10] (7th)
Elevation
 • Highest point Mount Greylock [11] [12]
3,489 ft (1063.4 m)
 • Mean 500 ft  (150 m)
 • Lowest point Atlantic Ocean
sea level
Before statehood Province of Massachusetts Bay
Admission to Union February 6, 1788 (6th)
Governor Charlie Baker ( R)
Lieutenant Governor Karyn Polito (R)
Legislature General Court
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Elizabeth Warren ( D)
Ed Markey (D)
U.S. House delegation 9 Democrats ( list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC -5/ -4
ISO 3166 US-MA
Abbreviations MA, Mass.
Website www.mass.gov
Massachusetts state symbols
Flag of Massachusetts.svg
Seal of Massachusetts.svg
Living insignia
Bird Black-capped chickadee, [13] wild turkey [14] [15]
Fish Cod [15] [16]
Flower Mayflower [15] [17]
Insect Ladybug [15] [18]
Mammal Right whale, [19] Morgan horse, [20] Tabby cat, [21] Boston Terrier [22]
Reptile Garter snake [15] [23]
Tree American elm [15] [24]
Inanimate insignia
Beverage Cranberry juice [15] [25]
Colors Blue, green, cranberry [15] [26]
Dance Square dance [15] [27]
Food Cranberry, [28] corn muffin, [15] [29] navy bean, [30] Boston cream pie, [31] chocolate chip cookie, [32] Boston cream doughnut [33]
Fossil Dinosaur Tracks [34]
Gemstone Rhodonite [15] [35]
Mineral Babingtonite [15] [36]
Motto Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem ( Latin)
By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under liberty
Poem "Blue Hills of Massachusetts" [15] [37]
Rock Rolling Rock [15] [38]
Shell New England Neptune, Neptunea lyrata decemcostata [15] [41]
Ship Schooner Ernestina [15]
Slogan Make It Yours,
The Spirit of America [39]
Soil Paxton [15]
Song " All Hail to Massachusetts" [15]
Sport Basketball [40]
State route marker
Massachusetts state route marker
State quarter
Massachusetts quarter dollar coin
Released in 2000 [42]
Lists of United States state symbols

Massachusetts ( s/ ( About this sound  listen) or s/), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. [43] Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, [44] Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. [45] During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. [46] Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade. [47]

Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. [48] In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. [49] In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. [50] In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. [51] In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" [52] for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution.

The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, [53] and transcendentalist [54] movements. [55] In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. [56] [57] In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. [58] Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, [59] with the largest financial endowment of any university, [60] and Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. [61] Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. [62] [63] Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. [64] Massachusetts's public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance. [65]

Etymology

Prominent roads and cities in Massachusetts

The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett, likely derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus(ây) "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative" (the '8' in these words refers to the 'oo' sound according to the Wôpanâak orthographic chart). [66] It has been translated as "near the great hill", [67] "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill which is located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. [68] [69] Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock (meaning "hill shaped like an arrowhead") in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, and Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621. [70] [71]

The official name of the state is the " Commonwealth of Massachusetts". [72] While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. [73] Massachusetts has the same position and powers within the United States as other states. [74]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Massachusetts
አማርኛ: ማሣቹሰትስ
Ænglisc: Massachusetts
العربية: ماساتشوستس
aragonés: Massachusetts
arpetan: Massachusetts
asturianu: Massachusetts
Avañe'ẽ: Massachusetts
azərbaycanca: Massaçusets
Bân-lâm-gú: Massachusetts
башҡортса: Массачусетс
беларуская: Масачусетс
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Масачусэтс
भोजपुरी: मैसाचुसेट्स
Bikol Central: Massachusetts
Bislama: Massachusetts
български: Масачузетс
Boarisch: Massachusetts
bosanski: Massachusetts
brezhoneg: Massachusetts
català: Massachusetts
Чӑвашла: Массачусетс
Cebuano: Massachusetts
čeština: Massachusetts
Cymraeg: Massachusetts
davvisámegiella: Massachusetts
Deutsch: Massachusetts
Ελληνικά: Μασαχουσέτη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Massachusetts
español: Massachusetts
Esperanto: Masaĉuseco
euskara: Massachusetts
فارسی: ماساچوست
Fiji Hindi: Massachusetts
føroyskt: Massachusetts
français: Massachusetts
Gaeilge: Massachusetts
Gàidhlig: Massachusetts
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Massachusetts
хальмг: Масачуусиц
Hawaiʻi: Makakukeka
Հայերեն: Մասսաչուսեթս
hrvatski: Massachusetts
Ilokano: Massachusetts
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ম্যাসাচুসেট্‌স
Bahasa Indonesia: Massachusetts
interlingua: Massachusetts
Interlingue: Massachusetts
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᒫᓵᓲᓰᑦᔅ
Iñupiak: Massachusetts
isiZulu: Massachusetts
íslenska: Massachusetts
italiano: Massachusetts
עברית: מסצ'וסטס
Basa Jawa: Massachusetts
Kapampangan: Massachusetts
ქართული: მასაჩუსეტსი
қазақша: Массачусетс
kernowek: Massachusetts
Kiswahili: Massachusetts
Kreyòl ayisyen: Masachosèt
Кыргызча: Массачусетс
кырык мары: Массачусетс
لۊری شومالی: ماساچوسئت
latviešu: Masačūsetsa
Lëtzebuergesch: Massachusetts
lietuvių: Masačusetsas
Limburgs: Massachusetts
lumbaart: Massachusetts
македонски: Масачусетс
Malagasy: Massachusetts
მარგალური: მასაჩუსეტსი
مازِرونی: ماساچوست
Bahasa Melayu: Massachusetts
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Massachusetts
Dorerin Naoero: Massachusetts
Nederlands: Massachusetts
Nedersaksies: Massachusetts
नेपाल भाषा: म्यासेच्युसेत्स
нохчийн: Массачусетс
Nordfriisk: Massachusetts
norsk nynorsk: Massachusetts
occitan: Massachusetts
олык марий: Массачусетс
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Massachusetts
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੈਸਾਚੂਸਟਸ
پنجابی: میساچیوسٹس
Papiamentu: Massachusetts
Piemontèis: Massachusetts
Plattdüütsch: Massachusetts
português: Massachusetts
română: Massachusetts
rumantsch: Massachusetts
русский: Массачусетс
саха тыла: Массачусеттс
संस्कृतम्: मासचुसेट्‍स
Seeltersk: Massachusetts
sicilianu: Massachusetts
Simple English: Massachusetts
slovenčina: Massachusetts
slovenščina: Massachusetts
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Масачоусєтсъ
ślůnski: Massachusetts
српски / srpski: Масачусетс
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Massachusetts
svenska: Massachusetts
Tagalog: Massachusetts
татарча/tatarça: Массачусетс
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎺᏌᏧᏎᏗ
Türkçe: Massachusetts
українська: Массачусетс
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Massachuséts Shitati
Vahcuengh: Massachusetts
vèneto: Massachusetts
Tiếng Việt: Massachusetts
Volapük: Massachusetts
Winaray: Massachusetts
吴语: 马萨诸塞
Yorùbá: Massachusetts
粵語: 麻省
žemaitėška: Masačusetsos