Mariana Trench

Location of the Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench,[1] located in the western Pacific Ocean approximately 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Mariana Islands, and is the deepest known point in the world's oceans. It is a crescent-shaped trough in the Earth's crust averaging about 2,550 km (1,580 mi) long and 69 km (43 mi) wide. The maximum-known depth is 10,994 metres (36,070 ft) (± 40 metres [130 ft]) at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep.[2] However, some, unrepeated, measurements place the deepest portion at 11,034 metres (36,201 ft).[3] For comparison: if Mount Everest were dropped into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) underwater.[a]

At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), more than 1,000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure, the density of water is increased by 4.96%, so that 95.27 litres of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep would contain the same mass as 100 litres at the surface. The temperature at the bottom is 1 to 4 °C (34 to 39 °F).[5]

The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the centre of the Earth. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere; its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) smaller at the poles than at the equator.[6] As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth's centre than the Challenger Deep seafloor.

In 2009, the Marianas Trench was established as a United States National Monument.[7]

Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 kilometres (6.6 mi) below the sea surface.[8] On 17 March 2013, researchers from the Scottish Association for Marine Science reported data that suggested microbial life forms thrive within the trench.[9][10]

Names

The Mariana Trench is named for the nearby Mariana Islands (in turn named Las Marianas in honor of Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of Philip IV of Spain). The islands are part of the island arc that is formed on an over-riding plate, called the Mariana Plate (also named for the islands), on the western side of the trench.

Other Languages
العربية: خندق ماريانا
azərbaycanca: Marian çökəkliyi
Bân-lâm-gú: Mariana Hái-kau
беларуская: Марыянскі жолаб
brezhoneg: Foz Mariana
Esperanto: Mariana Fosego
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mariana Hói-kiêu
Bahasa Indonesia: Palung Mariana
Basa Jawa: Palung Mariana
Кыргызча: Мариана кобулу
lietuvių: Marianų lovys
Bahasa Melayu: Jurang Mariana
Nederlands: Marianentrog
norsk nynorsk: Marianegropa
پنجابی: ماریانہ
português: Fossa das Marianas
Simple English: Mariana Trench
slovenčina: Mariánska priekopa
slovenščina: Marianski jarek
српски / srpski: Маријански ров
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Marijanski rov
татарча/tatarça: Мариан иңкүлеге
Türkçe: Mariana Çukuru
українська: Маріанський жолоб
Tiếng Việt: Rãnh Mariana