Manipur

Manipur
Lohtak Lake, around 30 km from the capital Imphal
Lohtak Lake, around 30 km from the capital Imphal
Manipur, a state of India
Country India
Formation21 January 1972
CapitalImphal
Districts16
Government
 • GovernorNajma Heptulla[1]
 • Chief MinisterN. Biren Singh (BJP)[2]
 • LegislatureUnicameral (60 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituencyRajya Sabha 1
Lok Sabha 2
 • High CourtManipur High Court
Area
 • Total22,327 km2 (8,621 sq mi)
Area rank24th
Population
(2011[3])
 • Total2,855,794
 • Rank24th
 • Density130/km2 (330/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-MN
HDIDecrease 0.695 medium
HDI rank15th (2017)
Literacy79.85% (16th)
Official languagesMeitei (Manipuri)[4][5]
Websitewww.manipur.gov.in
It elevated from the status of Union-Territories by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act 1971
State symbols of Manipur
EmblemKangla Sha
LanguageMeitei
AnimalSangai (Rucervus eldii eldii)
BirdNongin (Syrmaticus humiae)
FlowerShirui lily (Lilium mackliniae)
TreeUningthou (Phoebe hainesiana)

Manipur (ʊər/ (About this soundlisten)) is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.[6] It is bounded by Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, and Assam to the west; Burma (Myanmar) lies to its east. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi) and has a population of almost 3 million, including the Meitei, who are the majority group in the state, the Pangals or the Pangans (Manipuri Muslims), Kuki, and Naga people, who speak a variety of Sino-Tibetan languages. Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years.[7] It has long connected the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia, China (or East Asia), Siberia, Micronesia and Polynesia, enabling migration of people, cultures, and religions.[8][9]

During the Raj, the Kingdom of Manipur was one of the princely states.[10] Between 1917 and 1939, the people of Manipur pressed for their rights against British rule. By the late 1930s, the princely state of Manipur negotiated with the British administration its preference to be part of India, rather than Burma. These negotiations were cut short with the outbreak of World War II. On 11 August 1947, Maharaja Budhachandra signed the Instrument of Accession, joining India.[11][12] Later on 21 September 1949, he signed a Merger Agreement, merging the kingdom into India.[13] This merger has been disputed by groups in Manipur as having been completed without consensus and under duress.[14] The dispute and differing visions for the future has resulted in a 50-year insurgency in the state for independence from India, as well as in repeated episodes of violence among ethnic groups in the state.[15] From 2009 through 2018, the conflict was responsible for the violent deaths of over 1000 people.[16]

The Meitei ethnic group[17] represents 53% of the population of Manipur state. The main language of the state is Meitei (also known as Manipuri) followed closely by Thadou language of the Kuki tribe and other various dialects of the Kuki tribes, followed by Naga tribes various dialects. Tribes constituting about 40% of the state population are distinguished by dialects and cultures that are often village-based. Manipur's ethnic groups practice a variety of religions.[18] According to 2011 census, Sanamahism is the major religion in the state, closely followed by Christianity. Other religions include Islam, Hinduism, Judaism etc.[18][19]

Manipur has primarily an agrarian economy, with significant hydroelectric power generation potential. It is connected to other areas by daily flights through Imphal airport, the second largest in northeastern India.[20] Manipur is home to many sports and the origin of Manipuri dance,[21] and is credited with introducing polo to Europeans.[22]

Alternate names

Manipur is mentioned in historic texts as Kangleipak(ꯀꯪꯂꯩꯄꯛ) or Meeteileipak[23] Sanamahi Laikan wrote that officials during the reign of Meidingu Pamheiba in the eighteenth century adopted Manipur's new name.

According to Sakok Lamlen, the area had different names in its history. During the Hayachak period, it was known as Mayai Koiren poirei namthak saronpung or Tilli Koktong Ahanba; in the Khunungchak period, it was Meera Pongthoklam. During the Langbachak era, it became Tilli Koktong Leikoiren, and finally was known as Muwapali in the Konnachak epoch.[24][page needed]

Neighbouring cultures each had differing names for Manipur and its people. The Shan or Pong called the area Cassay, the Burmese Kathe, and the Assamese Meklee. In the first treaty between the British East India Company and Meidingu Chingthangkhomba (Bhagyachandra) signed in 1762, the kingdom was recorded as Meckley. Bhagyachandra and his successors issued coins engraved with "Manipureshwar", or "lord of Manipur", and the British discarded the name Meckley. Later on, the work Dharani Samhita (1825–34) popularised the Sanskrit legends of the origin of Manipur's name.[25]

The term Kanglei, meaning "of Manipur/Kangleipak", is used to refer to items associated with the state where the term Manipuri is a recent given name.

Examples using the term "Kanglei" Translation
Kanglei of Kangleipak/Manipur
Kangleicha People of Kangleipak/Manipur
Kanglei foods Foods of Kangleipak/Manipur
Kanglei style Style of Kangleipak/Manipur
Other Languages
Acèh: Manipur
Afrikaans: Manipur
አማርኛ: መኒፑር
العربية: مانيبور
অসমীয়া: মণিপুৰ
asturianu: Manipur
azərbaycanca: Manipur
تۆرکجه: مانیپور
বাংলা: মণিপুর
Bân-lâm-gú: Manipur
беларуская: Маніпур
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Маніпур
भोजपुरी: मणिपुर
български: Манипур
བོད་ཡིག: མཱ་ནི་པུར།
brezhoneg: Manipur
català: Manipur
Cebuano: Manipur
čeština: Manípur
Cymraeg: Manipur
dansk: Manipur
Deutsch: Manipur
ދިވެހިބަސް: މަނިޕޫރު
डोटेली: मणिपुर
eesti: Manipur
Ελληνικά: Μανιπούρ
español: Manipur
Esperanto: Manipuro
euskara: Manipur
فارسی: مانیپور
Fiji Hindi: Manipur
français: Manipur
Gaeilge: Manipur
ગુજરાતી: મણિપુર
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Mannipur
한국어: 마니푸르주
հայերեն: Մանիպուր
हिन्दी: मणिपुर
hrvatski: Manipur
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মণিপুর
Bahasa Indonesia: Manipur
íslenska: Manipur
italiano: Manipur
עברית: מניפור
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಣಿಪುರ
Kapampangan: Manipur
ქართული: მანიპური
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: منی پور
Kiswahili: Manipur
Latina: Manipura
latviešu: Manipura
Lëtzebuergesch: Manipur
lietuvių: Manipuras
magyar: Manipur
मैथिली: मणिपुर
македонски: Манипур
Malagasy: Manipur
മലയാളം: മണിപ്പൂർ
मराठी: मणिपूर
მარგალური: მანიპური
Bahasa Melayu: Manipur
Baso Minangkabau: Manipur
монгол: Манипур
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မဏိပူရပြည်နယ်
Nederlands: Manipur
नेपाली: मणिपुर
नेपाल भाषा: मणिपुर
日本語: マニプル州
нохчийн: Манипур
Nordfriisk: Manipur
norsk: Manipur
norsk nynorsk: Manipur
occitan: Manipur
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମଣିପୁର
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Manipur
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਣੀਪੁਰ
پنجابی: منیپور
پښتو: منيپور
polski: Manipur
português: Manipur
română: Manipur
русский: Манипур
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱯᱩᱨ
संस्कृतम्: मणिपुरराज्यम्
Scots: Manipur
Simple English: Manipur
slovenčina: Manípur
српски / srpski: Манипур
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Manipur
suomi: Manipur
svenska: Manipur
Tagalog: Manipur
తెలుగు: మణిపూర్
тоҷикӣ: Манипур
Türkçe: Manipur
українська: Маніпур
اردو: منی پور
Tiếng Việt: Manipur
Winaray: Manipur
Yorùbá: Manipur