|Native to||Guinea, Mali, Liberia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast|
|5 million (1999–2012)|
Official language in
Maninka (Malinke), or more precisely Eastern Maninka, is the name of several closely related languages and dialects of the southeastern
The Wudala dialect of Eastern Maninkaka, spoken in the central highlands of Guinea and comprehensible to speakers of all dialects in that country, has the following phonemic inventory. (Apart from tone, which is not written, sounds are given in orthography, as IPA values are not certain.)
There are two moraic tones, high and low, which in combination form rising and falling tones.
The marker for definiteness is a falling
Vowel qualities are /i e ɛ a ɔ o u/. All may be long or short, oral or nasal: /ii ee ɛɛ aa ɔɔ oo uu/ and /in en ɛn an ɔn on un/. (It may be that all nasal vowels are long.) Nasal vowels nasalize some following consonants.
/d/ typically becomes a flap [ɾ] between vowels. /ty/ (also written "c") often becomes /k/ before the vowels /i/ or /ɛ/. There is regional variation between /g/ and the
Several voiced consonants become nasals after a nasal vowel. /b/ becomes /m/, /y/ becomes /ny/, and /l/ becomes /n/. For example, nouns ending in oral vowels take the plural in -lu; nouns ending in nasal vowels take -nu. However, /d/ remains oral, as in /nde/ "I, me".