Manila

Manila

Maynilà
Lungsod ng Maynilà
(City of Manila)
From top, left to right: The Manila skyline, Rizal Monument, Fort Santiago, Malacañang Palace, University of Santo Tomas, Manila City Hall, Quiapo Church
Flag of Manila
Flag
Nickname(s): 
Pearl of the Orient[1]
Motto(s): 
Sulong Maynila
(Onward Manila)
Manila is located in Philippines
Manila
Manila
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°35′45″N 120°58′38″E / 14°35′45″N 120°58′38″E / 14.5958; 120.9772
CountryPhilippines
RegionNational Capital Region
Congressional District1st to 6th districts of Manila
Administrative District16 city districts
Established13th century or earlier
Sultanate of Brunei (Rajahnate of Maynila)1500s
Spanish ManilaJune 24, 1571
City CharterJuly 31, 1901
Highly Urbanized CityDecember 22, 1979
Barangays896
Government
 • TypeMayor–council
 • Mayor Isko Moreno Domagoso (NUP/Asenso Manileño)
 • Vice MayorDr. Ma. Sheilah Lacuna Pangan (NUP/Asenso Manileño)
 • City Representatives
 • City Council
Area
 • City42.88 km2 (16.56 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,474.82 km2 (569.43 sq mi)
 • Metro
619.57 km2 (239.22 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
 (2015 census)[6][7]
 • City1,780,148
 • Density71,263/km2 (184,570/sq mi)
 • Urban
22,710,000[5]
 • Metro
12,877,253
 • Metro density20,785/km2 (53,830/sq mi)
Demonym(s)English: Manileño, Manilan;
Spanish: manilense,[8] manileño(-a)
Filipino: Manileño(-a), Manilenyo(-a), Taga-Maynila
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
+900 – 1-096
IDD:area code+63 (0)2
Revenue (₱)10,154.9 million  (2016)
HDI (2017)0.756[9]high
GDPUSD 276.4 billion
Websitemanila.gov.ph Edit this at Wikidata

Manila (ə/; Filipino: Maynilà, pronounced [majˈnilaʔ] or [majniˈla]), officially the City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynilà [luŋˈsod nɐŋ majˈnilaʔ]), is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the oldest cities in the world,[10] as well as the most densely populated city proper in the world as of 2018.[11] It was the first chartered city by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949.[12] Manila, alongside Mexico City and Madrid are considered the world's original set of Global Cities due to Manila's commercial networks being the first to traverse the Pacific Ocean, thus connecting Asia with the Spanish Americas, marking the first time in world history when an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circled the planet.[13] Manila has been damaged by and rebuilt from wars more times than the famed city of Troy and it is also the second most natural disaster-afflicted capital city in the world next to Tokyo,[14] yet it is simultaneously among the most populous and wealthiest cities in Southeast Asia.[15]

The Spanish city of Manila was founded on June 24, 1571, by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi. The date is regarded as the city's official founding date; however, a settlement has already existed dating back as far as 1258. Manila was also the seat of power for most of the country's colonial rulers. It is home to many historic sites, some of which were built during the 16th century. Manila has many of the Philippines' firsts, including the first university (1590),[16] light station (1642), lighthouse tower (1846), water system (1878), hotel (1889), electricity (1895), oceanarium (1913),[17] stock exchange (1927), flyover (1930s), zoo (1959), pedestrian underpass (1960),[18] science high school (1963),[19] city-run university (1965), city-run hospital (1969), and rapid transit system (1984; also considered as the first rapid transit system in Southeast Asia).[20]

The term "Manila" is commonly used to refer to the whole metropolitan area, the greater metropolitan area or the city proper. The officially defined metropolitan area called Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines, includes the much larger Quezon City and the Makati Central Business District. It is the most populous region of the country, one of the most populous urban areas in the world,[21] and is one of the wealthiest regions in Southeast Asia.[22] The city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015,[6] and is the historic core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. With 71,263 people per square kilometer, Manila is also the most densely populated city proper in the world.[6][7]

The city is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay. The Pasig River flows through the middle of the city, dividing it into the north and south sections. Manila is made up of 16 administrative districts: Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo, while it is divided into six districts for its representation in Congress and the election of the city council members. In 2016, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Manila as an "alpha –" global city.[23]

Etymology

Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, comes from the phrase may-nilà, which translates to "where indigo is found."[24] Nilà is derived from the Sanskrit word nīla (नील) which refers to indigo, and, by extension, to several plant species from which this natural dye can be extracted.[24][25] The Maynilà name is more likely in reference to the presence of indigo-yielding plants growing in the area surrounding the settlement, rather than Maynilà being known as a settlement that trades in indigo dye.[24] This is because the settlement was founded several hundred years before indigo dye extraction became an important economic activity in the area in the 18th century.[24] The native Tagalog name for the indigo plant, tayum (or variations thereof)[24][26] actually finds use in another toponym within the Manila area — Tayuman ("where the indigo [plant] is") — and elsewhere in the Philippines (e.g., Tayum, Abra; Tagum, Davao del Norte).

Maynilà was eventually adopted into Spanish as Manila.

May-nilad

Plate depicting the "nilad" plant (Scyphiphora hydrophylacea), from Augustinian missionary Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's botanical reference, "Flora de Filipinas"

An antiquarian and inaccurate etymology asserts the origin of the city's name as may-nilad ("where nilad is found").[24] Here, nilad is taken to be the name for one of two littoral plant species:

From a linguistic perspective it is unlikely for native Tagalog speakers to completely drop the final consonant /d/ in nilad to arrive at the present form Maynilà.[24] As an example, nearby Bacoor still retains the final consonant of the old Tagalog word bakoód ("elevated piece of land"), even in old Spanish renderings of the placename (e.g., Vacol, Bacor).[29] Historians Ambeth Ocampo[30][31] and Joseph Baumgartner[24] have also found that in all early documents, the place had always been written without the final /d/, thereby making the may-nilad etymology spurious.

The misidentification of nilad as the source of the toponym appears to originate from an 1887 essay written by Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, in which he wrote nila as both referring to Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo) and to Ixora manila (actually, nilád in Tagalog[28]).[25][24] Early 20th century writings, such as those of Julio Nakpil[32] and of Blair and Robertson then repeated the claim.[33][31] Today, this erroneous etymology continues to be perpetuated through casual repetition in both literature[34][35] and popular use, such as in Maynilad Water Services and the name of the underpass close to Manila City Hall, Lagusnilad ("Nilad Pass").[30]

Other Languages
Acèh: Manila
Afrikaans: Manila
Alemannisch: Manila
አማርኛ: ማኒላ
Ænglisc: Manila
العربية: مانيلا
aragonés: Manila
asturianu: Manila
azərbaycanca: Manila
تۆرکجه: مانیل
Bân-lâm-gú: Manila
Basa Banyumasan: Manila
беларуская: Маніла
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Маніла
Bikol Central: Manila
български: Манила
བོད་ཡིག: མ་ནི་ལ།
bosanski: Manila
brezhoneg: Manila
буряад: Манила
català: Manila
Cebuano: Manila
čeština: Manila
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Manila
chiShona: Manila
Cymraeg: Manila
dansk: Manila
Deutsch: Manila
dolnoserbski: Manila
डोटेली: मनिला
eesti: Manila
Ελληνικά: Μανίλα
español: Manila
Esperanto: Manilo
euskara: Manila
فارسی: مانیل
Fiji Hindi: Manila
føroyskt: Manila
français: Manille
Frysk: Manilla
Gaeilge: Mainile
Gàidhlig: Manila
galego: Manila
Gĩkũyũ: Manila
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Manila
한국어: 마닐라
Hausa: Manila
հայերեն: Մանիլա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Մանիլա
हिन्दी: मनीला
hornjoserbsce: Manila
hrvatski: Manila
Ido: Manila
Ilokano: Manila
Bahasa Indonesia: Manila
interlingua: Manila
Interlingue: Manila
Ирон: Манилæ
íslenska: Maníla
italiano: Manila
עברית: מנילה
Jawa: Manila
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮನಿಲ
Kapampangan: Menila
ქართული: მანილა
қазақша: Манила
Kinyarwanda: Manila
Kiswahili: Manila
Kreyòl ayisyen: Manyl
kurdî: Manîla
Кыргызча: Манила
Ladino: Manila
Latina: Manila
latviešu: Manila
Lëtzebuergesch: Manila
lietuvių: Manila
Ligure: Manilla
Limburgs: Manilla
Livvinkarjala: Manila
la .lojban.: manilias.
lumbaart: Manila
magyar: Manila
मैथिली: मनिला
македонски: Манила
Malagasy: Manille
മലയാളം: മനില
मराठी: मनिला
მარგალური: მანილა
مصرى: مانيلا
Bahasa Melayu: Manila
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Manila
Mirandés: Manila
монгол: Манила
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မနီလာမြို့
Nāhuatl: Manillah
Dorerin Naoero: Manila
Nederlands: Manilla
नेपाली: मनिला
नेपाल भाषा: मनिला
日本語: マニラ
нохчийн: Манила
Nordfriisk: Manila (stääd)
Norfuk / Pitkern: Manila
norsk: Manila
norsk nynorsk: Manila
occitan: Manila
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମାନିଲା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Manila
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਨੀਲਾ
Pangasinan: Manila
پنجابی: منیلا
Papiamentu: Manila
پښتو: مانیلا
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ម៉ានីល
Picard: Manille
Piemontèis: Manila
polski: Manila
português: Manila
Qaraqalpaqsha: Manila
qırımtatarca: Manila
română: Manila
Runa Simi: Manila
русский: Манила
саха тыла: Манила
sardu: Manila
Scots: Manila
shqip: Manila
sicilianu: Manila
සිංහල: මැනිලා
Simple English: Manila
slovenčina: Manila
slovenščina: Manila
ślůnski: Manila
کوردی: مانیلا
српски / srpski: Манила
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Manila
suomi: Manila
svenska: Manila
Tagalog: Maynila
தமிழ்: மணிலா
తెలుగు: మనీలా
тоҷикӣ: Манила
Türkçe: Manila
українська: Маніла
اردو: منیلا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مانىلا
vèneto: Manila
vepsän kel’: Manil
Tiếng Việt: Manila
Volapük: Maynila
Võro: Manila
Winaray: Manila
ייִדיש: מאנילא
Yorùbá: Manila
粵語: 馬尼拉
Zazaki: Manila
中文: 马尼拉