Mango

Mango fruit

Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupes) produced from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for its edible fruit.

Most of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. The genus belongs to the cashew family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are native to South Asia,[1][2] from where the "common mango" or "Indian mango", Mangifera indica, has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most widely cultivated fruits in the tropics. Other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, Mangifera foetida) are grown on a more localized basis.

Worldwide, there are several hundred cultivars of mango. Depending on the cultivar, mango fruit varies in size, shape, sweetness, skin color, and flesh color which may be pale yellow, gold, or orange.[1] Mango is the national fruit of India and Pakistan, and the national tree of Bangladesh.[3] It is the unofficial national fruit of the Philippines.[4]

Etymology and history

The English word "mango" (plural "mangoes" or "mangos") originated from the Malayalam word māṅṅa (or mangga) via Dravidian-Tamil (mankay as man for mango tree and kay for fruit, or maangaay) during the spice trade period with South India in the 15th and 16th centuries.[5][6][7]

The earliest known reference to the cultivation of mangoes can be traced to India up to 2000BCE[8] Mango was brought to East Asia around 400–500 BCE, in the 15th century to the Philippines, and in the 16th century to Africa and Brazil by Portuguese explorers.[9] There have been several verified accounts and novels with references to the mango fruit in Indian Tamil literary works, the most prominent known reference to the mango fruit being to the 5th century saint Karaikkal Ammaiyar, where it is mentioned that she received a mango fruit as a boon from Lord Shiva, due to her devotion when her husband requested it, after providing alms one out of two mangoes given by her husband earlier to an Ascetic, disguised as Lord Shiva.[10]

Mango is mentioned by Hendrik van Rheede, the Dutch commander of the Malabar region in his 1678 book, Hortus Malabaricus, about plants having economic value.[11] When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled because of lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were also pickled and came to be called "mangoes", especially bell peppers, and in the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle".[12]

Other Languages
Acèh: Mamplam
العربية: منجا (فاكهة)
অসমীয়া: আম
Aymar aru: Catuña
bamanankan: Mangoro
বাংলা: আম
भोजपुरी: आम
Bikol Central: Mangga
bosanski: Mango
brezhoneg: Mangez
čeština: Mango
Cymraeg: Mango
dansk: Mango
Deutsch: Mango
ދިވެހިބަސް: އަނބު
डोटेली: आँम
eesti: Mango
Ελληνικά: Μάνγκο
español: Mango (fruta)
Esperanto: Mango (frukto)
euskara: Mango
eʋegbe: Maŋgo
فارسی: انبه
français: Mangue
Gaeilge: Mangó
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Ambo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fân-son
한국어: 망고
Hausa: Mangoro
հայերեն: Մանգո (միրգ)
Արեւմտահայերէն: Մանկօ
हिन्दी: आम
hrvatski: Mango
Ido: Mango
Ilokano: Mangga
Bahasa Indonesia: Mangga
Ирон: Манго
íslenska: Mangó
italiano: Mango (frutto)
עברית: מנגו
Jawa: Pelem
Kapampangan: Mangga
ქართული: მანგო
Kinyarwanda: Umwembe
Kiswahili: Embe
коми: Манго
Kongo: Manga
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mango
кырык мары: Манго
лакку: Манго
latviešu: Mango
Lëtzebuergesch: Mango
मैथिली: आम
Malagasy: Manga
മലയാളം: മാങ്ങ
मराठी: आंबा
Bahasa Melayu: Mangga
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သရက်သီး
नेपाल भाषा: अं
occitan: Manga (fruch)
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mango (meva)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅੰਬ
پنجابی: امب
Papiamentu: Mango
Patois: Manggo
Перем Коми: Манго
polski: Mango (owoc)
português: Manga (fruta)
reo tahiti:
русский: Манго (фрукт)
Scots: Mango
Sesotho sa Leboa: Menkô
sicilianu: Mangu
سنڌي: انب
slovenčina: Mango
Soomaaliga: Cambe
српски / srpski: Mango (plod)
Sunda: Manggah
தமிழ்: மாம்பழம்
татарча/tatarça: Манго (җимеш)
тоҷикӣ: Анба (мева)
Türkçe: Mango
удмурт: Манго
українська: Манго (фрукт)
اردو: آم
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مانگو
Vahcuengh: Makmanghgoj
Tiếng Việt: Xoài
Võro: Mango
文言: 杧果
Winaray: Mangga
粵語: 芒果