Manga in Jp.svg
The kanji for "manga" from Seasonal Passersby (Shiki no Yukikai), 1798, by Santō Kyōden and Kitao Shigemasa.
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Manga (漫画, manga) are comics or graphic novels created in Japan or using the Japanese language and conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.[1] They have a long and complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art.[2]

The term manga (kanji: 漫画; hiragana: まんが; katakana: マンガ; About this soundlisten ; English: ə/ or ə/) in Japan is used to refer to both comics and cartooning. Outside Japan, the word is used to refer to comics originally published in Japan.[3]

In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action, adventure, business and commerce, comedy, detective, drama, historical, horror, mystery, romance, science fiction and fantasy, erotica (hentai), sports and games, and suspense, among others.[4][5] Many manga are translated into other languages.[6] Since the 1950s, manga has become an increasingly major part of the Japanese publishing industry.[7] By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion ($6–7 billion),[8] with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books and manga magazines in Japan (equivalent to 15 issues per person).[9] Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience.[10] In 2008, in the U.S. and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million. Manga represent 38% of the French comics market, which is equivalent to approximately ten times that of the United States.[11] In France, the manga market was valued at about €460 million ($569 million) in 2005.[12] In Europe and the Middle East, the market was valued at $250 million in 2012.[13]

Manga stories are typically printed in black-and-white (due to time constraints, artistic reasons (as coloring could lessen the impact of the artwork)[14] and to keep printing costs low), [15] although some full-color manga exist (e.g., Colorful). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. Collected chapters are usually republished in tankōbon volumes, frequently but not exclusively, paperback books.[16] A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company.[17] If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or during its run.[18] Sometimes manga are drawn that are based on previous live-action or animated films.[19]

Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in Algeria ("DZ-manga"), China, Hong Kong, Taiwan ("manhua"), and South Korea ("manhwa").[20][21]


The word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画,[22] composed of the two kanji 漫 (man) meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 (ga) meaning "pictures".[23] The same term is the root of the Korean word for comics, "manhwa", and the Chinese word "manhua".[24]

The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century[25] with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai (1798),[26][27] and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books (1814–1834)[28] containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.[29] Rakuten Kitazawa (1876–1955) first used the word "manga" in the modern sense.[30]

In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning, comics, and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside Japan. The term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels.[31]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Manga
Alemannisch: Manga
አማርኛ: ማንጋ
العربية: مانغا
aragonés: Manga
asturianu: Manga
azərbaycanca: Manqa
বাংলা: মাঙ্গা
Banjar: Manga
Bân-lâm-gú: Ji̍t-pún bàng-gah
беларуская: Манга (мастацтва)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Манга
Bikol Central: Manga
български: Манга
བོད་ཡིག: མན་གྷ།
bosanski: Manga
català: Manga
čeština: Manga
Cymraeg: Manga
dansk: Manga
davvisámegiella: Manga
Deutsch: Manga
eesti: Manga
Ελληνικά: Manga
español: Manga
Esperanto: Mangao
euskara: Manga
فارسی: مانگا
français: Manga
Gaeilge: Manga
Gaelg: Manga
galego: Manga
贛語: 漫畫
한국어: 일본 만화
հայերեն: Մանգա
हिन्दी: मांगा
hrvatski: Manga
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মাঙ্গা
Bahasa Indonesia: Manga
íslenska: Manga
italiano: Manga
עברית: מאנגה
Jawa: Manga
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಂಗಾ
ქართული: მანგა
қазақша: Манга
Kiswahili: Manga
kurdî: Manga
Кыргызча: Манга
Latina: Manga
latviešu: Manga
Lëtzebuergesch: Manga
lietuvių: Manga
lumbaart: Manga
magyar: Manga
македонски: Манга
مصرى: مانجا
Bahasa Melayu: Manga
монгол: Манга
Nāhuatl: Manga
Nederlands: Manga (strip)
日本語: 日本の漫画
Napulitano: Manga
norsk: Manga
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମାଂଗା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Manga
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਂਗਾ
polski: Manga
português: Mangá
română: Manga
Runa Simi: Manga
русский: Манга
sardu: Manga
Scots: Manga
shqip: Manga
Simple English: Manga
slovenčina: Manga
slovenščina: Manga
ślůnski: Manga
српски / srpski: Manga
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Manga
Sunda: Manga
suomi: Manga
svenska: Manga
Tagalog: Manga
தமிழ்: மங்கா
ไทย: มังงะ
українська: Манґа
اردو: مانگا
Tiếng Việt: Manga
Winaray: Manga
吴语: 日本漫画
Yorùbá: Mángà
粵語: 日本漫畫
中文: 日本漫画