Manga

Manga
Manga in Jp.svg
The kanji for "manga" from Seasonal Passersby (Shiki no Yukikai), 1798, by Santō Kyōden and Kitao Shigemasa.
Publishers
Publications
Series
Languages Japanese
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Manga (漫画, Manga) are comics created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. [1] They have a long and complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art. [2]

The term manga ( kanji: 漫画; hiragana: まんが; katakana: マンガ; About this sound  listen ; English: ə/ or ə/) in Japan is a word used to refer to both comics and cartooning. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers to comics originally published in Japan. [3]

In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, business and commerce, comedy, detective, historical drama, horror, mystery, romance, science fiction and fantasy, sexuality, sports and games, and suspense, among others. [4] [5] Many manga are translated into other languages. [6] Since the 1950s, manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry, [7] representing a ¥406 billion market in Japan in 2007 (approximately $3.6 billion) and ¥420 billion (approximately $5.5 billion) in 2009. [8] Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience. [9] In Europe and the Middle East the market was worth $250 million in 2012. [10] In 2008, in the U.S. and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million. Manga represent 38% of the French comics market, nearly 260 million Euros which is equivalent to approximately ten times to that of the United States. [11] [12] Manga stories are typically printed in black-and-white, [13] although some full-color manga exist (e.g., Colorful). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in tankōbon volumes, frequently but not exclusively, paperback books. [14] A manga artist ( mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. [15] If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run. [16] Sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films. [17]

Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in Algeria (" DZ-manga"), China, Hong Kong, Taiwan (" manhua"), and South Korea (" manhwa"). [18] [19]

Etymology

The word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画, [20] composed of the two kanji 漫 (man) meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 (ga) meaning "pictures". [21]

The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century [22] with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai (1798), [23] [24] and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books (1814–1834) containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. [25] Rakuten Kitazawa (1876–1955) first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. [26]

In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning, comics, and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of " anime" in and outside Japan. The term " ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels. [27]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Manga
Alemannisch: Manga
አማርኛ: ማንጋ
العربية: مانغا
aragonés: Manga
asturianu: Manga
azərbaycanca: Manqa
বাংলা: মাঙ্গা
Bân-lâm-gú: Ji̍t-pún bàng-gah
беларуская: Манга (мастацтва)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Манга
български: Манга
བོད་ཡིག: མན་གྷ།
bosanski: Manga
català: Manga
čeština: Manga
Cymraeg: Manga
dansk: Manga
davvisámegiella: Manga
Deutsch: Manga
eesti: Manga
Ελληνικά: Μάνγκα
español: Manga
Esperanto: Mangao
euskara: Manga
فارسی: مانگا
français: Manga
Gaeilge: Manga
Gaelg: Manga
galego: Manga
贛語: 漫畫
한국어: 일본 만화
Հայերեն: Մանգա
हिन्दी: मांगा
hrvatski: Manga
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মাঙ্গা
Bahasa Indonesia: Manga
íslenska: Manga
italiano: Manga
עברית: מאנגה
Basa Jawa: Manga
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಂಗಾ
ქართული: მანგა
қазақша: Манга
Kiswahili: Manga
Kurdî: Manga
Latina: Manga
latviešu: Manga
Lëtzebuergesch: Manga
lietuvių: Manga
lumbaart: Manga
magyar: Manga
македонски: Манга
മലയാളം: മംഗ (കോമിക്)
مصرى: مانجا
Bahasa Melayu: Manga
монгол: Манга
Nāhuatl: Manga
Nederlands: Manga (strip)
日本語: 日本の漫画
Napulitano: Manga
norsk: Manga
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମାଂଗା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Manga
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਂਗਾ
polski: Manga
português: Mangá
română: Manga
Runa Simi: Manga
русский: Манга
sardu: Manga
Scots: Manga
shqip: Manga
Simple English: Manga
slovenčina: Manga
slovenščina: Manga
ślůnski: Manga
српски / srpski: Manga
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Manga
suomi: Manga
svenska: Manga
Tagalog: Manga
தமிழ்: மங்கா
ไทย: มังงะ
українська: Манґа
اردو: مانگا
Tiếng Việt: Manga
Winaray: Manga
吴语: 漫画
Yorùbá: Mángà
粵語: 日本漫畫
中文: 日本漫画