Malta

Republic of Malta
Repubblika ta' Malta  (Maltese)
Anthem: L-Innu Malti
The Maltese Hymn
Location of  Malta  (green circle) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Malta  (green circle)

– in Europe  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]

Location of Malta
CapitalValletta
35°54′N 14°31′E / 35°54′N 14°31′E / 35.900; 14.517
Largest cityBirkirkara
Official languagesMaltese
Maltese Sign Language[1]
English
Common languagesItalian[2] (66% conversational)
Ethnic groups (2011[3])
Religion Catholicism
DemonymMaltese
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Marie Louise Coleiro Preca
Joseph Muscat
LegislatureHouse of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
• State of Malta
21 September 1964
• Republic
13 December 1974
Area
• Total
316[4] km2 (122 sq mi) (186th)
• Water (%)
0.001
Population
• 2018 estimate
475,700[5] (171st)
• 2011 census
416,055[3]
• Density
1,457[3]/km2 (3,773.6/sq mi) (7th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$20.861 billion[6]
• Per capita
$44,670[6]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$14.873 billion[6]
• Per capita
$31,847[6]
Gini (2014)Positive decrease 27.7[7]
low · 15th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.878[8]
very high · 29th
CurrencyEuro ()[b] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (Central European Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (Central European Summer Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+356
Patron saintsPaul the Apostle, Saint Publius, and Agatha of Sicily[9]
ISO 3166 codeMT
Internet TLD.mt[c]
Website
www.gov.mt
  1. ^ Maltese nationals as referred to in the 2011 census[3]
  2. ^ Maltese lira before 2008
  3. ^ Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states

Malta (ə/,[citation needed] ə/ (About this soundlisten); Maltese: [ˈmɐltɐ]), officially known as the Republic of Malta (Maltese: Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.[10] It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia,[11] and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya.[12] Malta is one of the world's smallest[13][14][15] and most densely populated countries, at over 316 km2 (122 sq mi)[4] with a population of about 475,000.[5] Its capital is Valletta, which is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km.2 Its largest town is Birkirkara,[16] while its chief economic centre is Sliema. The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese officially recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union.

Malta has been inhabited since approximately 5900 BC. Its location in the centre of the Mediterranean[17] has historically given it great strategic importance as a naval base, with a succession of powers having contested and ruled the islands, including the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Greeks, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans, Sicilians, Spanish, Knights of St. John, French, and British.[18] Most of these foreign influences have left some sort of mark on the country's ancient culture.

Malta became a British colony in 1815, serving as a critical way station for ships and the headquarters for the British Mediterranean Fleet. It played an important role in the Allied war effort during the Second World War, and was subsequently awarded the George Cross for its bravery in the face of an Axis siege,[19] and the George Cross appears on Malta's national flag.[20] The British Parliament passed the Malta Independence Act in 1964, giving Malta independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and queen.[21] The country became a republic in 1974. It has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations since independence, and joined the European Union in 2004; it became part of the eurozone monetary union in 2008.

Malta has a long Christian legacy and its Archdiocese is claimed to be an apostolic see because Paul the Apostle was shipwrecked on "Melita", according to Acts of the Apostles,[22] which is now widely taken to be Malta. Catholicism is the official religion in Malta. Article 40 of the Constitution states that "all persons in Malta shall have full freedom of conscience and enjoy the free exercise of their respective mode of religious worship."[23][24]

Malta is a popular tourist destination with its warm climate, numerous recreational areas, and architectural and historical monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni,[25] Valletta,[26] and seven megalithic temples which are some of the oldest free-standing structures in the world.[27][28][29]

Etymology

The origin of the name Malta is uncertain, and the modern-day variation is derived from the Maltese language. The most common etymology is that the word Malta is derived from the Greek word μέλι, meli, "honey".[30] The ancient Greeks called the island Μελίτη (Melitē) meaning "honey-sweet", possibly for Malta's unique production of honey; an endemic subspecies of bee lives on the island.[31] The Romans called the island Melita,[32] which can be considered either a latinisation of the Greek Μελίτη or the adaptation of the Doric Greek pronunciation of the same word Μελίτα.[33]

Another conjecture suggests that the word Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth, "a haven",[34] or 'port'[35] in reference to Malta's many bays and coves. Few other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary (Itin. Marit. p. 518; Sil. Ital. xiv. 251).[36]

Other Languages
Acèh: Malta
Адыгэбзэ: Малтэ
Afrikaans: Malta
Alemannisch: Malta
አማርኛ: ማልታ
Ænglisc: Melita
العربية: مالطا
aragonés: Malta
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܝܠܛܐ
armãneashti: Malta
arpetan: Malta
asturianu: Malta
Avañe'ẽ: Melíta
авар: Мальта
azərbaycanca: Malta
تۆرکجه: مالت
বাংলা: মাল্টা
Bân-lâm-gú: Malta
башҡортса: Мальта
беларуская: Мальта
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мальта
भोजपुरी: माल्टा
Bikol Central: Malta
Bislama: Malta
български: Малта
Boarisch: Malta
བོད་ཡིག: མལ་ཏ།
bosanski: Malta
brezhoneg: Malta
буряад: Мальта
Cebuano: Malta
čeština: Malta
Chamoru: Malta
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Malta
chiShona: Malta
chiTumbuka: Malta
corsu: Malta
Cymraeg: Malta
dansk: Malta
davvisámegiella: Malta
Deutsch: Malta
ދިވެހިބަސް: މޯލްޓާ
dolnoserbski: Malta
डोटेली: माल्टा
eesti: Malta
Ελληνικά: Μάλτα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Malta
español: Malta
Esperanto: Malto
estremeñu: Malta
euskara: Malta
eʋegbe: Malta
فارسی: مالت
Fiji Hindi: Malta
føroyskt: Malta
français: Malte
Frysk: Malta
Fulfulde: Malta
furlan: Malte
Gaeilge: Málta
Gaelg: Yn Valta
Gagauz: Malta
Gàidhlig: Malta
galego: Malta
ગુજરાતી: માલ્ટા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: माल्टा
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Malta
хальмг: Малтдин Орн
한국어: 몰타
Hausa: Malta
Hawaiʻi: Malata
հայերեն: Մալթա
हिन्दी: माल्टा
hornjoserbsce: Malta
hrvatski: Malta
Ido: Malta
Igbo: Malta
Ilokano: Malta
Bahasa Indonesia: Malta
interlingua: Malta
Interlingue: Malta
isiZulu: IMalta
íslenska: Malta
italiano: Malta
עברית: מלטה
Basa Jawa: Malta
kalaallisut: Malta
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಾಲ್ಟ
Kapampangan: Malta
къарачай-малкъар: Мальта
ქართული: მალტა
kaszëbsczi: Malta
қазақша: Мальта
kernowek: Malta
Kinyarwanda: Malita
Kiswahili: Malta
коми: Мальта
Kongo: Malta
Kreyòl ayisyen: Malt
kurdî: Malta
Кыргызча: Мальта
Ladino: Malta
лакку: Мальта
لۊری شومالی: مالت
latgaļu: Malta
latviešu: Malta
Lëtzebuergesch: Malta
lietuvių: Malta
Ligure: Mâta
Limburgs: Malta
lingála: Malta
Lingua Franca Nova: Malta
Livvinkarjala: Mal'tu
la .lojban.: maltas
lumbaart: Malta
magyar: Málta
मैथिली: माल्टा
македонски: Малта
Malagasy: Malta
മലയാളം: മാൾട്ട
Malti: Malta
Māori: Mārata
मराठी: माल्टा
მარგალური: მალტა
مصرى: مالطا
مازِرونی: مالت
Bahasa Melayu: Malta
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mī-lé-dâi
Mirandés: Malta
монгол: Мальт
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မော်လတာနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Marta
Nederlands: Malta (land)
Nedersaksies: Malta (laand)
नेपाली: माल्टा (देश)
नेपाल भाषा: माल्टा
日本語: マルタ
Napulitano: Malta
нохчийн: Мальта
Nordfriisk: Malta
Norfuk / Pitkern: Marlta
norsk: Malta
norsk nynorsk: Malta
Nouormand: Malte
Novial: Malta
occitan: Malta
олык марий: Мальта
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମାଲଟା
Oromoo: Mooltaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Malta
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਲਟਾ
पालि: माल्टा
Pangasinan: Malta
پنجابی: مالٹا
Papiamentu: Malta
پښتو: مالټا
Patois: Malta
Перем Коми: Мальта
Picard: Malte
Piemontèis: Malta
Plattdüütsch: Malta
polski: Malta
Ποντιακά: Μάλτα
português: Malta
Qaraqalpaqsha: Malta
qırımtatarca: Malta
română: Malta
Romani: Malta
rumantsch: Malta
Runa Simi: Malta
русиньскый: Малта
русский: Мальта
саха тыла: Мальта
Gagana Samoa: Melita
संस्कृतम्: माल्टा
sardu: Malta
Scots: Maltae
Seeltersk: Malta
shqip: Malta
sicilianu: Malta
සිංහල: මෝල්ටාව
Simple English: Malta
SiSwati: IMalitha
slovenčina: Malta
slovenščina: Malta
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Малта
ślůnski: Malta
Soomaaliga: Malta
کوردی: ماڵتا
Sranantongo: Maltakondre
српски / srpski: Малта
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Malta
Basa Sunda: Malta
suomi: Malta
svenska: Malta
Tagalog: Malta
தமிழ்: மால்ட்டா
Taqbaylit: Malṭa
tarandíne: Malte
татарча/tatarça: Мальта
తెలుగు: మాల్టా
tetun: Malta
тоҷикӣ: Малта
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎹᎵᏔ
Türkçe: Malta
Türkmençe: Malta
Twi: Mɔlta
удмурт: Мальта
українська: Мальта
اردو: مالٹا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مالتا
Vahcuengh: Malta
vèneto: Malta
vepsän kel’: Mal't
Tiếng Việt: Malta
Volapük: Malteän
Võro: Malta
walon: Male
文言: 馬爾他
West-Vlams: Malta
Winaray: Malta
Wolof: Malt
吴语: 马耳他
Xitsonga: Malta
ייִדיש: מאלטא
Yorùbá: Máltà
粵語: 馬耳他
Zazaki: Malta
Zeêuws: Malta
žemaitėška: Malta
中文: 马耳他