Mali

Republic of Mali
  • République du Mali  ( French)
  • Mali ka Fasojamana  ( Bambara)
Motto: "Un peuple, un but, une foi" (French)
"One people, one goal, one faith"
Anthem:  Le Mali  (French) [1]
Location of  Mali  (green)
Location of  Mali  (green)
Location of Mali
Capital
and largest city
Bamako
12°39′N 8°0′W / 12°39′N 8°0′W / 12.650; -8.000
Official languages French
National languages
Ethnic groups
Demonym Malian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
•  President
Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta
Abdoulaye Idrissa Maïga [2]
Legislature National Assembly
Independence
• from Francea
20 June 1960
• as Mali
22 September 1960
Area
• Total
1,240,192 km2 (478,841 sq mi) ( 23rd)
• Water (%)
1.6
Population
• April 2009 census
14,517,176 [3] ( 67th)
• Density
11.7/km2 (30.3/sq mi) ( 215th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$40.974 billion [4]
• Per capita
$2,360 [4]
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$14.344 billion [4]
• Per capita
$826 [4]
Gini (2010) 33.0 [5]
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.442 [6]
low ·  175th
Currency West African CFA franc ( XOF)
Time zone GMT ( UTC+0)
Drives on the right [7]
Calling code +223
ISO 3166 code ML
Internet TLD .ml

Mali ( i/; French:  [mali]), officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 18 million [8]. Its capital is Bamako. Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, [9] and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of $1.25 (U.S.) a day. [10] A majority of the population (90%) are Muslims. [11]

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. [12] [13] At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. [14] In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.

In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of by April and declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. [15] The conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March [16] and later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. [17] A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.

Etymology

The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire. The name was originally derived from the Mandinka or  Bambara word mali, meaning “hippopotamus”, but it eventually came to mean "the place where the king lives". [18] The word carries the connotation of strength. [19]

Guinean writer Djibril Niane suggests in Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali (1965) that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was called Mali. [20] One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River, and that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali for a name. This name could have formerly been that of a city. In old Mali, there is one village called Malikoma which means “New Mali.” [21]

Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. [22] [23] It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, thus “Manden” shifts to /Mali/. [21]

Other Languages
Acèh: Mali
адыгабзэ: Мали
Afrikaans: Mali
Alemannisch: Mali
አማርኛ: ማሊ
العربية: مالي
aragonés: Mali
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܐܠܝ
arpetan: Mali
asturianu: Mali
azərbaycanca: Mali
تۆرکجه: مالی
bamanankan: Mali
বাংলা: মালি
Bahasa Banjar: Mali
Bân-lâm-gú: Mali
башҡортса: Мали
беларуская: Малі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Малі
भोजपुरी: माली देस
Bikol Central: Mali
български: Мали
བོད་ཡིག: མ་ལི།
bosanski: Mali
brezhoneg: Mali
буряад: Мали
català: Mali
Чӑвашла: Мали
čeština: Mali
chiShona: Mali
Cymraeg: Mali
dansk: Mali
Deutsch: Mali
ދިވެހިބަސް: މާލީ
dolnoserbski: Mali
eesti: Mali
Ελληνικά: Μάλι
español: Malí
Esperanto: Malio
estremeñu: Mali
euskara: Mali
eʋegbe: Mali
فارسی: مالی
Fiji Hindi: Mali
føroyskt: Mali
français: Mali
Frysk: Maly
Fulfulde: Maali
Gaeilge: Mailí
Gaelg: Malee
Gagauz: Mali
Gàidhlig: Màili
galego: Malí
Gĩkũyũ: Mali
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mali
хальмг: Малудин Орн
한국어: 말리
Hausa: Mali
Հայերեն: Մալի
हिन्दी: माली
hornjoserbsce: Mali
hrvatski: Mali
Ido: Mali
Igbo: Mali
Ilokano: Mali
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মালি
Bahasa Indonesia: Mali
interlingua: Mali
Interlingue: Mali
Ирон: Мали
isiZulu: IMali
íslenska: Malí
italiano: Mali
עברית: מאלי
Basa Jawa: Mali
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಾಲಿ
Kapampangan: Mali
ქართული: მალი
қазақша: Мали
kernowek: Mali
Kinyarwanda: Mali
Kiswahili: Mali
Kongo: Mali
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mali
Kurdî: Malî
Кыргызча: Мали
кырык мары: Мали
Ladino: Mali
Latina: Malia
latviešu: Mali
Lëtzebuergesch: Mali
lietuvių: Malis
Ligure: Mali
Limburgs: Mali
lingála: Mali
Livvinkarjala: Mali
Luganda: Mali
lumbaart: Mali
magyar: Mali
македонски: Мали
Malagasy: Mali
മലയാളം: മാലി
Malti: Mali
मराठी: माली
მარგალური: მალი
مصرى: مالى
مازِرونی: مالی
Bahasa Melayu: Mali
Baso Minangkabau: Mali
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mali
монгол: Мали
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မာလီနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Mali
Nederlands: Mali
Nedersaksies: Mali
नेपाली: माली
नेपाल भाषा: माली
日本語: マリ共和国
нохчийн: Мали
Nordfriisk: Maali
Norfuk / Pitkern: Maali
norsk: Mali
norsk nynorsk: Mali
Novial: Mali
occitan: Mali
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମାଲି
Oromoo: Maalii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mali
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਲੀ
पालि: माली
پنجابی: مالی
Papiamentu: Mali
پښتو: مالي
Patois: Mali
Piemontèis: Mali
Plattdüütsch: Mali
polski: Mali
português: Mali
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mali
qırımtatarca: Mali
română: Mali
Runa Simi: Mali
русиньскый: Малі
русский: Мали
саха тыла: Мали
sámegiella: Mali
संस्कृतम्: माली
Sängö: Malïi
sardu: Mali
Scots: Mali
Seeltersk: Mali
Sesotho: Mali
Sesotho sa Leboa: Mali
shqip: Mali
sicilianu: Mali
සිංහල: මාලි
Simple English: Mali
SiSwati: IMali
slovenčina: Mali
slovenščina: Mali
ślůnski: Mali
Soomaaliga: Maali
کوردی: مالی
српски / srpski: Мали
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mali
Basa Sunda: Mali
suomi: Mali
svenska: Mali
Tagalog: Mali (bansa)
தமிழ்: மாலி
Taqbaylit: Mali
татарча/tatarça: Мали
ትግርኛ: ማሊ
тоҷикӣ: Малӣ
Türkçe: Mali
Türkmençe: Mali
удмурт: Мали
українська: Малі
اردو: مالی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مالى
vèneto: Małì
vepsän kel’: Mali
Tiếng Việt: Mali
Volapük: Maliyän
Võro: Mali
walon: Mali
文言: 馬里
West-Vlams: Mali
Winaray: Mali
Wolof: Mali
吴语: 马里
Xitsonga: Mali (Tiko)
ייִדיש: מאלי
Yorùbá: Málì
粵語: 馬里
Zazaki: Mali
Zeêuws: Mali
žemaitėška: Malis
中文: 马里
डोटेली: माली