Malaysia

Malaysia

مليسيا (Jawi alphabet)[n 1]
Motto: "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu"[1]
"Unity Is Strength"
Anthem: Negaraku
My Country
   Malaysia in    ASEAN
   Malaysia in    ASEAN
CapitalKuala Lumpur
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133; 101.683
Putrajaya (administrative)
2°56′35″N 101°41′58″E / 2°56′35″N 101°41′58″E / 2.9430952; 101.699373
Largest cityKuala Lumpur
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133; 101.683
Malay[n 1][n 2][n 3]
Recognised languageEnglish[n 3]
Ethnic groups
(2017[2])
Religion
Demonym(s)Malaysian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary elective constitutional monarchy
Muhammad V
Mahathir Mohamad
Richard Malanjum
SA. Vigneswaran
Mohamad Ariff Md Yusof
LegislatureParliament
Dewan Negara (Senate)
Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)
Independence 
31 August 1957[5]
22 July 1963
17 January 1962
31 July 1963
31 August 1963
16 September 1963
9 August 1965
8 August 1967
Area
• Total
330,803 km2 (127,724 sq mi) (66th)
• Water (%)
0.3
Population
• 2017 estimate
32,049,700[6] (44th)
• 2010 census
28,334,135[7]
• Density
92/km2 (238.3/sq mi) (116th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.002 trillion[8] (26th)
• Per capita
$30,858[9] (41st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$364.919 billion (38th)
• Per capita
$11,237 (62nd)
Gini (2009)Negative increase 46.3[10]
high
HDI (2017)Increase 0.802[11]
very high · 57th
CurrencyRinggit (RM) (MYR)
Time zoneUTC+8 (MST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8 (not observed)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+60
ISO 3166 codeMY
Internet TLD.my

Malaysia (ə/ (About this soundlisten) LAY-zee-ə, -zhə; Malay: [məlejsiə]) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo). Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand in the north and maritime borders with Singapore in the south, Vietnam in the northeast, and Indonesia in the west. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species.

Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire when the Straits Settlements became British protectorates. Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation.[12] The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese (the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world), Malaysian Indians, and indigenous peoples. The constitution grants freedom of religion but recognises Islam as the established religion of the state. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. He is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister. The country's official language is Bahasa Melayu, commonly known as the Malay language. English remains an active second language. In 2017, English proficiency in Malaysia was ranked the 2nd best in Asia (after Singapore) and the 13th best in the world.[13]

A member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia since its independence from the United Kingdom with its GDP growing at an average of 6.5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce and medical tourism. It is also one of the few developing countries to heavily subsidise education and healthcare. Malaysian citizens are entitled to free public education up to secondary level and public tertiary education fees are subsidised by up to 90%.[14] Basic healthcare services at government-run clinics with prescription cost RM1.[15] Disabled persons, senior citizens and public school students are entitled to free healthcare. Malaysian healthcare services have been described as among the best in the world, and the UN Development Program called the Malaysian healthcare system "a model to other developing countries".[16][17]

Malaysia's recent rapid development has attracted millions of migrant workers from across Asia. The majority of these migrants are undocumented, a situation which the Malaysian government is struggling to combat, with its treatment and crackdown on migrant workers often criticised by international human rights watchdogs.[18] Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked 4th largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world. With a GDP per capita of $10,430 and an HDI of 0.802, Malaysia is classified as an emerging economy by the World Bank.[11] The International Monetary Fund (IMF) also classifies Malaysia as an emerging and developing country.[19] Malaysia is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Non-Aligned Movement. In 2017, Malaysian citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 164 countries and territories, ranking the Malaysian passport the 20th most accepted in the world.[20][21]

Etymology

English Map of Southeast Asia, "MALAYSIA" typeset horizontally so that the letters run across the northernmost corner of Borneo and pass just south of the Philippines.
"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas

The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία.[22] The word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively.[23][24][25] "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula.[26][27][28][29][30] Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to steadily accelerate or run. This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra.[31] The name was later adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra.[32][33]

Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu" ("Malay Land").[34][35] Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race.[36][37] Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he later proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area commonly known as the East Indies".[38] In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.[39] In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and smaller islands that lie between these areas.[40]

The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE.[41][42] The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation.[43] One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak to Malaya in 1963.[43] Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name.[44]

Other Languages
Acèh: Malaysia
Адыгэбзэ: Мэлайзиэ
адыгабзэ: Малайзие
Afrikaans: Maleisië
Alemannisch: Malaysia
አማርኛ: ማሌዢያ
Ænglisc: Malægsia
العربية: ماليزيا
aragonés: Malaisia
arpetan: Malèsie
অসমীয়া: মালয়েছিয়া
asturianu: Malasia
Avañe'ẽ: Malásia
azərbaycanca: Malayziya
تۆرکجه: مالزی
Bahasa Banjar: Malaysia
Bân-lâm-gú: Má-lâi-se-a
Basa Banyumasan: Malaysia
башҡортса: Малайзия
беларуская: Малайзія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Малайзія
भोजपुरी: मलेशिया
Bikol Central: Malasya
български: Малайзия
Boarisch: Malaysia
བོད་ཡིག: མ་ལ་ཤི་ཡ།
bosanski: Malezija
brezhoneg: Malaysia
буряад: Малайзи
català: Malàisia
Чӑвашла: Малайзи
Cebuano: Malasya
čeština: Malajsie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Malasia
Chi-Chewa: Malaysia
chiShona: Malaysia
chiTumbuka: Malaysia
Cymraeg: Maleisia
dansk: Malaysia
davvisámegiella: Malaysia
Deutsch: Malaysia
ދިވެހިބަސް: މެލޭޝިޔާ
dolnoserbski: Malayzija
डोटेली: मलेशिया
eesti: Malaisia
Ελληνικά: Μαλαισία
español: Malasia
Esperanto: Malajzio
estremeñu: Malásia
euskara: Malaysia
فارسی: مالزی
Fiji Hindi: Malaysia
føroyskt: Malaisia
français: Malaisie
Frysk: Maleizje
Gaeilge: An Mhalaeisia
Gagauz: Malayziya
Gàidhlig: Malaidhsia
galego: Malaisia
贛語: 馬來西亞
Gĩkũyũ: Malaysia
ગુજરાતી: મલેશિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: मलेशिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mâ-lòi-sî-â
한국어: 말레이시아
Hausa: Maleziya
Hawaiʻi: Malaisia
հայերեն: Մալայզիա
हिन्दी: मलेशिया
hornjoserbsce: Malajzija
hrvatski: Malezija
Ilokano: Malaysia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মালয়েশিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Malaysia
interlingua: Malaysia
Interlingue: Malaysia
Iñupiak: Malaisia
Ирон: Малайзи
íslenska: Malasía
italiano: Malaysia
עברית: מלזיה
Basa Jawa: Malaysia
Kabɩyɛ: Malɛɛzii
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಲೇಶಿಯ
Kapampangan: Malasya
ქართული: მალაიზია
kaszëbsczi: Malezjô
қазақша: Малайзия
kernowek: Malaysi
Kinyarwanda: Malesiya
Kiswahili: Malaysia
Kongo: Malaysia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Malezi
kurdî: Malezya
Кыргызча: Малайзия
Ladino: Malasia
Latina: Malaesia
latviešu: Malaizija
Lëtzebuergesch: Malaysia
lietuvių: Malaizija
Ligure: Malaysia
Limburgs: Maleisië
lingála: Malesí
Lingua Franca Nova: Malaisia
Livvinkarjala: Malaizii
la .lojban.: mejgu'e
lumbaart: Malaysia
magyar: Malajzia
मैथिली: मलेसिया
македонски: Малезија
Malagasy: Malezia
മലയാളം: മലേഷ്യ
Malti: Malażja
Māori: Marēhia
मराठी: मलेशिया
მარგალური: მალაიზია
مصرى: ماليزيا
مازِرونی: مالزی
Bahasa Melayu: Malaysia
Baso Minangkabau: Malaysia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mā-lài-să̤-ā
Mirandés: Malásia
монгол: Малайз
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မလေးရှားနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Malasia
Dorerin Naoero: Maraidja
Nederlands: Maleisië
नेपाली: मलेशिया
नेपाल भाषा: मलेसिया
日本語: マレーシア
нохчийн: Малайзи
Nordfriisk: Malaysia
Norfuk / Pitkern: Melasya
norsk: Malaysia
norsk nynorsk: Malaysia
Novial: Malaysia
occitan: Malàisia
олык марий: Малайзий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମାଲେସିଆ
Oromoo: Maleeshiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Malayziya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਲੇਸ਼ੀਆ
Pangasinan: Malasia
پنجابی: ملائشیا
Papiamentu: Malaysia
پښتو: مالیزیا
Patois: Malieja
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ម៉ាឡេស៊ី
Picard: Malajie
Piemontèis: Malaysia
Tok Pisin: Malaysia
Plattdüütsch: Malaysia
polski: Malezja
português: Malásia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Malayziya
qırımtatarca: Malayziya
română: Malaezia
Runa Simi: Malasya
русиньскый: Малайзія
русский: Малайзия
саха тыла: Малайзия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱟᱞᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ
संस्कृतम्: मलेशिया
Sängö: Malezïi
sardu: Malaìsia
Scots: Malaysie
shqip: Malajzia
sicilianu: Malesia
Simple English: Malaysia
SiSwati: IMaleshiya
slovenčina: Malajzia
slovenščina: Malezija
ślůnski: Malezyjo
Soomaaliga: Malaysiya
کوردی: مالیزیا
Sranantongo: Maleysikondre
српски / srpski: Малезија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Malezija
Basa Sunda: Malaysia
suomi: Malesia
svenska: Malaysia
Tagalog: Malaysia
தமிழ்: மலேசியா
Taqbaylit: Malizya
татарча/tatarça: Малайзия
తెలుగు: మలేషియా
tetun: Malázia
тоҷикӣ: Малайзия
Türkçe: Malezya
Türkmençe: Malaýziýa
удмурт: Малайзия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨆᨒᨕᨗᨔᨗᨕ
українська: Малайзія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مالايسىيا
Vahcuengh: Majlaizsihya
vèneto: Malèxia
vepsän kel’: Malaizii
Tiếng Việt: Malaysia
Volapük: Malaysiyän
Võro: Malaisia
文言: 馬來西亞
West-Vlams: Maleisië
Winaray: Malaysia
Wolof: Maleesi
吴语: 马来西亚
Xitsonga: Malexiya
ייִדיש: מאלייזיע
Yorùbá: Malaysia
粵語: 馬來西亞
Zazaki: Malêzya
Zeêuws: Maleisië
žemaitėška: Malaizėjė
中文: 马来西亚