Maine

State of Maine
Flag of MaineState seal of Maine
FlagSeal
Nickname(s):
"The Pine Tree State"
"Vacationland"[1]
Motto(s): "Dirigo"
(Latin for "I lead", "I guide", or "I direct")
State song(s): "State of Maine Song"
Map of the United States with Maine highlighted
Official languageNone[nb 1]
Spoken languages
DemonymMainer
CapitalAugusta
Largest cityPortland
Largest metroGreater Portland
AreaRanked 39th
 • Total35,385 sq mi
(91,646 km2)
 • Width210 miles (338 km)
 • Length320 miles (515 km)
 • % water13.5
 • Latitude42° 58′ N to 47° 28′ N
 • Longitude66° 57′ W to 71° 5′ W
PopulationRanked 42nd
 • Total1,335,907 (2017 est.)[8]
 • Density43.0/sq mi  (16.6/km2)
Ranked 38th
 • Median household income$50,756[9] (40th)
Elevation
 • Highest pointMount Katahdin[10][11][12]
5,270 ft (1606.4 m)
 • Mean600 ft  (180 m)
 • Lowest pointAtlantic Ocean[11]
Sea level
Before statehoodDistrict of Maine (Massachusetts)
Admission to UnionMarch 15, 1820 (23rd)
GovernorPaul LePage (R)
President of the SenateMichael Thibodeau (R)[13]
LegislatureMaine Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsSusan Collins (R)
Angus King (I)
U.S. House delegationChellie Pingree (D)
Bruce Poliquin (R) (list)
Time zoneEastern: UTC −5/−4
ISO 3166US-ME
AbbreviationsME, www.maine.gov
Maine state symbols
Flag of Maine.svg
Seal of Maine.svg
Living insignia
BirdChickadee
FishLandlocked Atlantic salmon
FlowerWhite pine cone
InsectHoney bee
MammalMoose
TreeEastern white pine
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMoxie[14]
FoodBlueberry pie
FossilPertica quadrifaria
GemstoneTourmaline
SoilChesuncook soil series
State route marker
Maine state route marker
State quarter
Maine quarter dollar coin
Released in 2003
Lists of United States state symbols

Maine (n/ (About this soundlisten)) is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, and the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, and the northernmost east of the Great Lakes. It is known for its jagged, rocky coastline; low, rolling mountains; heavily forested interior; and picturesque waterways, as well as its seafood cuisine, especially lobster and clams. There is a humid continental climate throughout the state, even in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland.[15] The capital is Augusta.

For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area. The first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate, deprivations, and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years.

As Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. At the close of the War of 1812, it was occupied by British forces, but the territory of Maine was returned to the United States as part of a peace treaty that was to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.

Etymology

There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most likely origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from then on in official records.[16] The state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine.[17]

Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland.[18] Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine". He made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland[19] established that she had no connection to the province; further, King Charles I married Henrietta Maria in 1625, three years after the name Maine first appeared on the charter.[20] A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, which is today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester.[20][21]

The view generally held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini".[citation needed] Some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236.[22] Today the village is known as Broadmayne, which is primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village.[23][24]

The first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine". Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors.[16] In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands [sic] in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne."[25] Initially, several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine (cf. the Spanish Main). A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, charter, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, and not by any other name or names whatsoever..."[20][26] Maine is the only U.S. state whose name has exactly one syllable.[27][28]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Maine
አማርኛ: መይን
Ænglisc: Maine
العربية: مين
aragonés: Maine (estato)
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܝܢ
arpetan: Mêne (Ètat)
asturianu: Maine
Avañe'ẽ: Maine
Aymar aru: Maine suyu
azərbaycanca: Men
تۆرکجه: مئین ایالتی
বাংলা: মেইন
Bân-lâm-gú: Maine
башҡортса: Мэн (штат)
беларуская: Мэн
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мэн (штат)
भोजपुरी: मेइन
Bikol Central: Maine
Bislama: Maine
български: Мейн
Boarisch: Maine
bosanski: Maine
brezhoneg: Maine (stad)
буряад: Мэн
català: Maine
Чӑвашла: Мэн (штат)
čeština: Maine
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Maine
corsu: Maine
Cymraeg: Maine
dansk: Maine
davvisámegiella: Maine
Deutsch: Maine
eesti: Maine
Ελληνικά: Μέιν
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Maine
español: Maine
Esperanto: Majno
euskara: Maine
Fiji Hindi: Maine
føroyskt: Maine
Frysk: Maine
Gaeilge: Maine
Gaelg: Maine
Gagauz: Maine
Gàidhlig: Maine
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Maine
хальмг: Мэн
한국어: 메인주
Hawaiʻi: Maine
հայերեն: Մեն
हिन्दी: मेन
hornjoserbsce: Maine
hrvatski: Maine
Ido: Maine
Igbo: Mën
Ilokano: Maine
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মেইন
Bahasa Indonesia: Maine
interlingua: Maine
Interlingue: Maine
Iñupiak: Maine
Ирон: Мейн
íslenska: Maine
italiano: Maine
עברית: מיין
Basa Jawa: Maine
Kabɩyɛ: Meenii
Kapampangan: Maine
ქართული: მენის შტატი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: مےن
қазақша: Мэн (штат)
kernowek: Mayn
Kiswahili: Maine
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mèn
kurdî: Maine
кырык мары: Мэн (штат)
Ladino: Maine
Latina: Cenomannica
latviešu: Meina
Lëtzebuergesch: Maine
lietuvių: Meinas
Ligure: Maine
Limburgs: Maine
Lingua Franca Nova: Maine
lumbaart: Maine
magyar: Maine
मैथिली: मेन
македонски: Мејн
Malagasy: Maine
മലയാളം: മെയ്ൻ
Māori: Maine
मराठी: मेन
მარგალური: მენიშ შტატი
مازِرونی: مین
Bahasa Melayu: Maine
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Maine
монгол: Мэн
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မိန်းပြည်နယ်
Dorerin Naoero: Maine
Nederlands: Maine
नेपाली: मेन
नेपाल भाषा: मेइन
日本語: メイン州
нохчийн: Мэн (штат)
Nordfriisk: Maine
norsk: Maine
norsk nynorsk: Maine
олык марий: Мэн (штат)
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Meyn
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੇਨ
पालि: मेइन
پنجابی: مینے
Papiamentu: Maine
Piemontèis: Maine
Plattdüütsch: Maine
polski: Maine
português: Maine
română: Maine
rumantsch: Maine
Runa Simi: Maine suyu
русский: Мэн (штат)
саха тыла: Мэн
संस्कृतम्: मेन
sardu: Maine
Scots: Maine
Seeltersk: Maine
shqip: Maine
sicilianu: Maine
Simple English: Maine
slovenčina: Maine
slovenščina: Maine
ślůnski: Maine
کوردی: مەین
српски / srpski: Мејн
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Maine
svenska: Maine
Tagalog: Maine
தமிழ்: மேய்ன்
Taqbaylit: Maine
татарча/tatarça: Мэн (штат)
Türkçe: Maine
українська: Мен (штат)
اردو: میئن
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Méané Shitati
Tiếng Việt: Maine
Volapük: Maine
文言: 緬因州
Winaray: Maine
吴语: 缅因
ייִדיש: מעין
Yorùbá: Maine
粵語: 緬因州
Zazaki: Maine
žemaitėška: Meins
中文: 缅因州