Mahmud II

Mahmud II
محمود ثانى
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Kayser-i Rûm
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
MahmutII.jpg
30th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign28 July 1808 – 1 July 1839
PredecessorMustafa IV
SuccessorAbdulmejid I
Born20 July 1784
Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Died1 July 1839(1839-07-01) (aged 54)
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
BurialTomb of Sultan Mahmud II, Fatih, Istanbul
ConsortsKamerfer Kadın
Mislinayab Kadın
Nevfidan Kadın
Dilseza Kadın
Hoşyar Kadın
Aşubcan Kadın
Nurtab Kadın
Bezmiâlem Sultan
Ebrureftar Kadın
Pervizifelek Kadın
Hüsnimelek Hanım
Pertevniyal Sultan
Tiryal Hanım
Zernigar Hanım
Lebrizifelek Hanım
Issuesee below
Full name
Mahmud bin Abdul Hamid
DynastyOttoman
FatherAbdul Hamid I
MotherNakşidil Sultan
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraMahmud II محمود ثانى's signature

Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانىMahmud-u s̠ānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî; Turkish: İkinci Mahmut; 20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat ("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz. Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey",[1] Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire. The reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would eventually lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic.[2]

Notwithstanding his domestic reforms, Mahmud's reign was also marked by nationalist uprisings in Ottoman-ruled Serbia and Greece, leading to significant loss of territory for the Empire following the emergence of an independent Greek state.

Accession

His mother was Nakşidil Valide Sultan. In 1808, Mahmud II's predecessor, and half-brother, Mustafa IV ordered his execution along with his cousin, the deposed Sultan Selim III, in order to defuse the rebellion. Selim III was killed, but Mahmud was safely kept hidden by his mother and was placed on the throne after the rebels deposed Mustafa IV. The leader of this rebellion, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, later became Mahmud II's vizier. Western historians give Mahmud a bad reputation for simply being the Sultan during a time of deterioration of the Ottoman Empire.[3]

There are many stories surrounding the circumstances of his attempted murder. A version by the 19th-century Ottoman historian Ahmed Cevdet Pasha gives the following account: one of his slaves, a Georgian girl named Cevri, gathered ashes when she heard the commotion in the palace surrounding the murder of Selim III. When the assassins approached the Harem chambers where Mahmud was staying, she was able to keep them away for a while by throwing ashes into their faces, temporarily blinding them. This allowed Mahmud to escape through a window and climb onto the roof of the Harem. He apparently ran to the roof of the Third Court where other pages saw him and helped him come down with pieces of clothes that were quickly tied together as a ladder. By this time one of the leaders of the rebellion, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha arrived with his armed men and upon seeing the dead body of Selim III proclaimed Mahmud as padishah. The slave girl Cevri Kalfa was awarded for her bravery and loyalty and appointed haznedar usta, the chief treasurer of the imperial Harem, which was the second most important position in the hierarchy. A plain stone staircase at the Altınyol (Golden Way) of the Harem is called Staircase of Cevri (Jevri) Kalfa, since the events apparently happened around there and are associated with her.[4]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Mahmoed II
Alemannisch: Mahmud II.
العربية: محمود الثاني
asturianu: Mahmut II
azərbaycanca: II Mahmud
Bân-lâm-gú: Mahmud 2-sè
башҡортса: Мәхмүт II
беларуская: Махмуд II
български: Махмуд II
bosanski: Mahmud II
brezhoneg: Mahmut II
català: Mahmut II
čeština: Mahmut II.
Deutsch: Mahmud II.
eesti: Mahmud II
Ελληνικά: Μαχμούτ Β΄
español: Mahmut II
Esperanto: Mahmudo la 2-a
euskara: Mahmud II.a
فارسی: محمود دوم
français: Mahmoud II
հայերեն: Մահմուդ II
hrvatski: Mahmud II.
Bahasa Indonesia: Mahmud II
italiano: Mahmud II
ქართული: მაჰმუდ II
қазақша: II Махмұт
latviešu: Mahmuds II
македонски: Махмуд II
Malagasy: Mahmud II
Bahasa Melayu: Mahmud II
日本語: マフムト2世
norsk: Mahmud II
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mahmud II
polski: Mahmud II
português: Mamude II
русский: Махмуд II
Scots: Mahmud II
shqip: Mahmuti II
Simple English: Mahmud II
slovenčina: Mahmud II.
српски / srpski: Махмуд II
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mahmud II
suomi: Mahmud II
svenska: Mahmud II
Tagalog: Mahmud II
Türkçe: II. Mahmud
Türkmençe: Mahmyt II Osmanly
українська: Махмуд II
Tiếng Việt: Mahmud II
Zazaki: Mahmud II