Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh
Western Group of Temples - Khajuraho 12.jpg
Sanchi Stupa from Eastern gate, Madhya Pradesh.jpg
Rupmati Mahal.jpg
A GROUP OF SPOTTED DEERS.jpg
White Marble Rocks at Bhedaghat.jpg
1 of the rock shelter caves at Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh.jpg
Kundalpur lake.jpg
Official logo of Madhya Pradesh
Seal
Etymology: Madhya (meaning 'central') and Pradesh (meaning 'province or territory')
Location of Madhya Pradesh in India
Location of Madhya Pradesh in India
Coordinates: 23°15′00″N 77°25′01″E / 23°15′00″N 77°25′01″E / 23.25; 77.417
Symbols
LanguageHindi devnagari.png Hindi
SongMadhya Pradesh Gaan
DanceMaanch
AnimalSwamp deer (Cervus duvaucelii branderi) male.jpg Barasingha
BirdAsian Paradise-flycatcher (Female).jpg Indian Paradise Flycatcher
FishTor tambroid 160811-61602 ffi.JPG Mahseer[7]
FlowerShoshanTzachor-2-wiki-Zachi-Evenor.jpg White Lily
FruitMangoes in Paris farmer's market.JPG Mango
TreeBanyantree.jpg Banyan Tree

Madhya Pradesh (MP; ʃ/, Hindi: [ˈmədʱjə pɾəˈdeːʃ] (About this soundlisten); meaning "Central Province") is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Gwalior, Jabalpur, Ujjain and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state, Singoli and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state.

The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avantika) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the then Bombay State. This state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state.

The economy of Madhya Pradesh is the tenth-largest state economy in India with 8.09 lakh crore (US$120 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 90,000 (US$1,300).[3] Madhya Pradesh ranks twenty-sixth among Indian states in human development index.[4] Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover. Its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.[8] In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average.[9]

History

Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era.[10] Painted pottery dated to the later mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters.[11] Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture (2100–1800 BCE) and Malwa culture (1700–1500 BCE) have been discovered in the western part of the state.[12]

The city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha, Dasarna and Nishada—have also been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh.

Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, and several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha.

Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports. The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.

The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE.[13]

Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, and their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's. The rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE.[14] The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states. The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. Later, Harsha (c. 590–647) ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century.[15] When the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara.[16]

The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty also held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time. It also left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa.[17] The Paramara king Bhoja (c. 1010–1060) was a renowned polymath. The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Gondwana and Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu.

The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531. In the 1540s, most parts of the state fell to Sher Shah Suri, and subsequently to the Hindu king Hemu. Hemu, who had earlier served as the General of the Suri dynasty, operated from the Gwalior Fort during 1553–56 and became the ruler of Delhi as a Vikramaditya king winning 22 battles continuously from Bengal to Gujrat and defeating Akbar's forces in the Battle of Delhi on 7 October 1556. However, he chose Delhi as his capital after his formal Coronation and left Gwalior. After Hemu's defeat by Akbar at the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556, most of Madhya Pradesh came under the Mughal rule. Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy.

The Mughal control weakened considerably after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. Between 1720 and 1760, the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, resulting in the establishment of semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Peshwa of Pune: the Holkars of Indore ruled much of Malwa, Puars ruled Dewas and Dhar, the Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal-Gondwana area, while the Scindias of Gwalior controlled the northern parts of the state. The most notable Maratha rulers of the region were Mahadji Shinde, Ahilyabai Holkar and Yashwantrao Holkar. Besides these, there were several other small states, including Bhopal, Orchha, and Rewa. The Bhopal state, which paid tribute to both the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad, was founded by Dost Mohammed Khan, a former General in the Mughal army.

After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the British took control of the entire region. All the sovereign states in the region became princely states of British India, governed by the Central India Agency. The Mahakoshal region became a British province: the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1861, the British merged the Nagpur Province with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces.

During the 1857 uprising, rebellions happened in the northern parts of the state, led by leaders like Tatya Tope. However, these were crushed by the British and the princes loyal to them. The state witnessed a number of anti-British activities and protests during the Indian independence movement.[18] Several notable leaders such as Chandra Shekhar Azad, B. R. Ambedkar, Shankar Dayal Sharma, Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Arjun Singh were born in what is now Madhya Pradesh.

After the independence of India, Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Jabalpur was chosen to be the capital of the state but at the last moment, due to some political pressure, Bhopal was made the state capital.[19] In November 2000, as part of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, the southeastern portion of the state split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh.

Other Languages
العربية: ماديا براديش
অসমীয়া: মধ্য প্ৰদেশ
asturianu: Madhya Pradesh
تۆرکجه: مادیا پرادش
Bân-lâm-gú: Madhya Pradesh
беларуская: Мадх’я-Прадэш
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мадг’я-Прадэш
भोजपुरी: मध्य प्रदेश
български: Мадхя Прадеш
brezhoneg: Madhya Pradesh
čeština: Madhjapradéš
ދިވެހިބަސް: މަދްޔަ ޕްރަދޭޝް
Ελληνικά: Μαντία Πραντές
español: Madhya Pradesh
Esperanto: Madja-Pradeŝo
Fiji Hindi: Madhya Pradesh
français: Madhya Pradesh
ગુજરાતી: મધ્ય પ્રદેશ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Madhya Pradex
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Madhya Pradesh
hrvatski: Madhya Pradesh
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মধ্য প্রদেশ
Bahasa Indonesia: Madhya Pradesh
interlingua: Madhya Pradesh
íslenska: Madhya Pradesh
italiano: Madhya Pradesh
Kapampangan: Madhya Pradesh
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: مدھیہ پردیش
Kiswahili: Madhya Pradesh
Кыргызча: Мадхья-Прадеш
latviešu: Madhja Pradēša
lietuvių: Madhja Pradešas
македонски: Мадја Прадеш
Malagasy: Madhya Pradesh
მარგალური: მადჰია-პრადეში
Bahasa Melayu: Madhya Pradesh
монгол: Мадяпрадеш
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မဇ္ဈဒေသ ပြည်နယ်
Nederlands: Madhya Pradesh
नेपाल भाषा: मध्य प्रदेश
Nordfriisk: Madhya Pradesh
norsk nynorsk: Madhya Pradesh
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Madhya-Pradesh
پنجابی: مدھیا پردیش
português: Madhya Pradesh
română: Madhya Pradesh
саха тыла: Мадхья-Прадеш
Simple English: Madhya Pradesh
slovenčina: Madhjapradéš
slovenščina: Madja Pradeš
српски / srpski: Мадја Прадеш
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Madhya Pradesh
татарча/tatarça: Мадхья-Прадеш
Türkçe: Madhya Pradeş
українська: Мадх'я-Прадеш
Tiếng Việt: Madhya Pradesh
吴语: 中央邦
Yorùbá: Madhya Pradesh
粵語: 中央邦
中文: 中央邦