Republic of Madagascar

  • Repoblikan'i Madagasikara  (Malagasy)
  • République de Madagascar  (French)
  • "Fitiavana, Tanindrazana, Fandrosoana" (Malagasy)
  • "Amour, Patrie, Progrès" (French)
  • "Love, Fatherland, Progress"[1]
Anthem: Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô!
Oh, Beloved Land of our Ancestors!
Location of Madagascar (dark blue) – in Africa (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union (light blue)
Location of Madagascar (dark blue)

– in Africa (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union (light blue)

Location of Madagascar
and largest city
18°55′S 47°31′E / 18°55′S 47°31′E / -18.917; 47.517
Official languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Andry Rajoelina
Christian Ntsay
Rivo Rakotovao
Christine Razanamahasoa[5]
National Assembly
• from France
26 June 1960
17 November 2010
• Total
587,041 km2 (226,658 sq mi) (46th)
• Water
5,501 km2 (2,124 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
24,894,551[6] (52nd)
• Density
35.2/km2 (91.2/sq mi) (174th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$45.948 billion[7]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$12.734 billion[7]
• Per capita
Gini (2010)44.1[8]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.519[9]
low · 161st
CurrencyMalagasy ariary (MGA)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (not observed[10])
Driving sideright
Calling code+261[10]
ISO 3166 codeMG

Madagascar (ɑːr/; Malagasy: Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara Malagasy pronunciation: [republiˈkʲan madaɡasˈkʲarə̥]; French: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometres (250 miles) off the coast of East Africa. At 592,800 square kilometres (228,900 sq mi) Madagascar is the world's 2nd largest island country.[11] The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (the fourth-largest island in the world) and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.

The archaeological evidence of the earliest human foraging on Madagascar may date up to 10,000 years ago.[12] Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and 550 AD by Austronesian peoples, arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo. These were joined around the 9th century AD by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. The Malagasy ethnic group is often divided into 18 or more subgroups, of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands.

Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles. The monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has officially been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair and transparent by the international community. Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the African Union (AU), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie.

Madagascar belongs to the group of least developed countries, according to the United Nations.[13] Malagasy and French are both official languages of the state. The majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity, or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education, health, and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana, these investments produced substantial economic growth, but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class. As of 2017, the economy has been weakened by the 2009–2013 political crisis, and quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population.


In the Malagasy language, the island of Madagascar is called Madagasikara (Malagasy pronunciation: [madaɡasʲˈkʲarə̥]) and its people are referred to as Malagasy.[14] The island's appellation "Madagascar" is not of local origin but rather was popularized in the Middle Ages by Europeans.[15] The name Madageiscar was first recorded in the memoirs of 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco Polo as a corrupted transliteration of the name Mogadishu, the Somali port with which Polo had confused the island.[16]

On St. Laurence's Day in 1500, Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias landed on the island and named it São Lourenço. Polo's name was preferred and popularized on Renaissance maps. No single Malagasy-language name predating Madagasikara appears to have been used by the local population to refer to the island, although some communities had their own name for part or all of the land they inhabited.[16]

Other Languages
Acèh: Madagaskar
Afrikaans: Madagaskar
Alemannisch: Madagaskar
አማርኛ: ማዳጋስካር
Ænglisc: Madagascar
العربية: مدغشقر
aragonés: Madagascar
arpetan: Madagascâr
asturianu: Madagascar
Avañe'ẽ: Mandagaka
azərbaycanca: Madaqaskar
تۆرکجه: ماداقاسکار
bamanankan: Madagaskar
Banjar: Madagaskar
Bân-lâm-gú: Madagascar
башҡортса: Мадагаскар
беларуская: Мадагаскар
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мадагаскар
भोजपुरी: मेडागास्कर
Bikol Central: Madagaskar
Bislama: Madagaskar
български: Мадагаскар
bosanski: Madagaskar
brezhoneg: Madagaskar
буряад: Мадагаскар
català: Madagascar
Cebuano: Madagascar
čeština: Madagaskar
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Madagascar
chiShona: Madagascar
Cymraeg: Madagasgar
dansk: Madagaskar
davvisámegiella: Madagaskar
Deitsch: Madagascar
Deutsch: Madagaskar
ދިވެހިބަސް: މަޑަގަސްކަރަ
dolnoserbski: Madagaskar
डोटेली: मडागास्कर
eesti: Madagaskar
Ελληνικά: Μαδαγασκάρη
español: Madagascar
Esperanto: Madagaskaro
estremeñu: Madagascal
euskara: Madagaskar
eʋegbe: Malagasi
Fiji Hindi: Madagascar
føroyskt: Madagaskar
français: Madagascar
Frysk: Madagaskar
Gaeilge: Madagascar
Gaelg: Madagascar
Gagauz: Madagaskar
Gàidhlig: Madagascar
galego: Madagascar
Gĩkũyũ: Madagascar
ગુજરાતી: મડાગાસ્કર
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Madagascar
Hausa: Madagaskar
հայերեն: Մադագասկար
हिन्दी: मेडागास्कर
hornjoserbsce: Madagaskar
hrvatski: Madagaskar
Ilokano: Madagascar
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মাদাগাস্কার
Bahasa Indonesia: Madagaskar
interlingua: Madagascar
Interlingue: Madagascar
isiZulu: IMadagasika
íslenska: Madagaskar
italiano: Madagascar
עברית: מדגסקר
Kabɩyɛ: Madakasɩkarɩ
kalaallisut: Madagascar
Kapampangan: Madagascar
ქართული: მადაგასკარი
kaszëbsczi: Madagaskar
қазақша: Мадагаскар
kernowek: Madagaskar
Kinyarwanda: Madagasikari
Kiswahili: Madagaska
Kongo: Malagasi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Madagaskar
kurdî: Madagaskar
Кыргызча: Мадагаскар
кырык мары: Мадагаскар
Ladino: Madagaskar
لۊری شومالی: ماداگاسکار
latgaļu: Madagaskars
Latina: Madagascaria
latviešu: Madagaskara
Lëtzebuergesch: Madagaskar
lietuvių: Madagaskaras
Ligure: Madagascar
Limburgs: Madagaskar
lingála: Madagasikari
Lingua Franca Nova: Madagasicara
Livvinkarjala: Madagaskar
Luganda: Madagascar
lumbaart: Madagascar
magyar: Madagaszkár
македонски: Мадагаскар
Malagasy: Madagasikara
മലയാളം: മഡഗാസ്കർ
Malti: Madagaskar
Māori: Marakāhia
მარგალური: მადაგასკარი
مازِرونی: ماداگاسکار
Bahasa Melayu: Madagaskar
Minangkabau: Madagaskar
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Madagascar
монгол: Мадагаскар
Nāhuatl: Madagascar
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Madagasikar
Nederlands: Madagaskar
Nedersaksies: Madagaskar
नेपाली: माडागास्कर
नेपाल भाषा: मादागास्कर
нохчийн: Мадагаскар
Nordfriisk: Madagaskar
Norfuk / Pitkern: Madagascar
norsk: Madagaskar
norsk nynorsk: Madagaskar
Novial: Madagaskar
occitan: Madagascar
Oromoo: Madagaskaar
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Madagaskar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਦਾਗਾਸਕਰ
پنجابی: مڈغاسکر
Papiamentu: Madagascar
Patois: Madagiaska
Piemontèis: Madagascar
Plattdüütsch: Madagaskar
polski: Madagaskar
Ποντιακά: Μαδαγασκάρην
português: Madagáscar
Qaraqalpaqsha: Madagaskar
qırımtatarca: Madagaskar
reo tahiti: Matatatihata
română: Madagascar
Runa Simi: Madagaskar
русский: Мадагаскар
саха тыла: Мадагаскар
Gagana Samoa: Madagascar
संस्कृतम्: मडगास्कर
Sängö: Madagaskära
Scots: Madagascar
Seeltersk: Madagaskar
Sesotho: Madagascar
Sesotho sa Leboa: Madagascar
sicilianu: Madagascar
Simple English: Madagascar
SiSwati: IMadagasikha
slovenčina: Madagaskar
slovenščina: Madagaskar
ślůnski: Madagaskar
Soomaaliga: Madagaskar
српски / srpski: Мадагаскар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Madagaskar
Sunda: Madagaskar
suomi: Madagaskar
svenska: Madagaskar
Tagalog: Madagascar
татарча/tatarça: Мадагаскар
తెలుగు: మడగాస్కర్
ትግርኛ: ማዳጋስካር
тоҷикӣ: Мадагаскар
Tsetsêhestâhese: Madagascar
Türkçe: Madagaskar
Türkmençe: Madagaskar
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Madagathkar
удмурт: Мадагаскар
українська: Мадагаскар
اردو: مڈغاسکر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ماداگاسكار
Vahcuengh: Madagascar
vèneto: Madagascar
vepsän kel’: Madagaskar
Tiếng Việt: Madagascar
Volapük: Malagaseän
Võro: Madagaskar
Winaray: Madagascar
Xitsonga: Madagascar
ייִדיש: מאדאגאסקאר
Yorùbá: Madagáskàr
Zazaki: Madagaskar
Zeêuws: Madahaskar
žemaitėška: Madagaskars