Luxembourg

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  • Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg  ( Luxembourgish)
  • Großherzogtum Luxemburg  ( German)
  • Grand-Duché de Luxembourg  ( French)
Motto: 
" Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn" ( Luxembourgish)
"We want to remain what we are"
Anthem: " Ons Heemecht"
"Our Homeland"
Location of  Luxembourg  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Luxembourg  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Capital
and largest city
Luxembourg
49°36′N 6°7′E / 49°36′N 6°7′E / 49.600; 6.117
Official languages Luxembourgish
French
German [1]
Nationality (2013)
Demonym Luxembourgish, Luxembourger
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
•  Monarch ( list)
Henri
Xavier Bettel
Etienne Schneider
Legislature Chamber of Deputies
Independence
• from the French Empire and elevation to Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
15 March 1815
• Independence in personal Union with the Netherlands Treaty of London)
19 April 1839
• Reaffirmation of Independence Treaty of London
11 May 1867
23 November 1890
• from the German Reich
1944 / 1945
Area
• Total
2,586.4 km2 (998.6 sq mi) ( 168th)
• Water (%)
0.60%
Population
• January 2017 estimate
Increase 590,667 [3] ( 170th)
• 2001 census
439,539
• Density
222.8/km2 (577.0/sq mi) ( 60th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$63.549 billion [4] ( 94th)
• Per capita
$107,736 [4] ( 2nd)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$59.997 billion [4] ( 71st)
• Per capita
$101,715 [4] ( 3rd)
Gini (2014) Positive decrease 28.7 [5]
low ·  19th
HDI (2015) Increase 0.898 [6]
very high ·  20th
Currency Euro ( )b ( EUR)
Time zone CET ( UTC+1)
• Summer ( DST)
CEST ( UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code +352
ISO 3166 code LU
Internet TLD .luc
  1. Not the same as the Het Wilhelmus of the Netherlands.
  2. Before 1999, Luxembourgish franc.
  3. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.
  4. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index". United States government. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 

Luxembourg ( ɡ/ ( About this sound  listen)) ( Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuːə̯ɕ] ( About this sound  listen); French: Luxembourg, German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, [note 1] is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, one of the three official capitals of the European Union [7] and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest juridical authority in the EU. Its culture, people and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. This is emphasised by the three official languages, Luxembourgish, French, and German. The repeated invasions by Germany, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. [8]

With an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, about the same size as the US state of Rhode Island or the English county of Northamptonshire. [9] In 2016, Luxembourg had a population of 576,249, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, [10] but by far the one with the highest population growth rate. [11] As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. The City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. [12]

The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. [13] [14] Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. [15] In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor. The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors at the high time of the Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and then one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. [16] Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon. [17]

The present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. [18] In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part (except the Arelerland, the area around Arlon) became what is the present state of Luxembourg. [19]

The steel industry exploiting the Red Lands' rich iron-ore grounds in the beginning of the 20th century drove the country's industrialisation. ArcelorMittal, the world's largest steel producer with headquarters in Luxembourg City, is still a reminder of these times. After the decline of the steel industry in the 1970s, the country focused on establishing itself as a global financial centre and developed into the banking hub it is reputed for. Since the beginning of the 21st century, its governments have focused on developing the country into a knowledge economy, with the founding of the University of Luxembourg and a national space programme, projecting the first involvement in a robotic lunar expedition by 2020. [20]

Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political, and military integration. The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, which was a first in the country's history. [21] In 2016 Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgian passport equal 15th in the world, tied with countries such as Canada and Switzerland. [22]

History

County

The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc [24] (today Luxembourg Castle) situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. [25] Around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value.

Duchy

In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy. [26]

In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns and the French.

Nineteenth century

After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands. The Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation in personal union with the Netherlands, being at the same time a part of the Netherlands and ruled as one of its provinces, with the Fortress of Luxembourg manned by Prussian troops. [27] This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. [28] [29] [30] [31]

Luxembourg City: The Passerelle, also known as the viaduct or old bridge, overseeing the Pétrusse river valley; it opened in 1861.

At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, and by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union ( Zollverein). [32] This resulted in the opening of the German market, the development of Luxembourg's steel industry, and expansion of Luxembourg's railway network from 1855 to 1875, particularly the construction of the Luxembourg- Thionville railway line, with connections from there to the European industrial regions. [33] While Prussian troops still manned the fortress, in 1861, the Passerelle was opened, the first road bridge spanning the Pétrusse river valley, connecting the Ville Haute and the main fortification on the Bock with Luxembourg railway station, opened in 1859, on the then fortified Bourbon plateau to the south.

After the Luxembourg Crisis of 1866 nearly led to war between Prussia and France, the Grand Duchy's independence and neutrality were again affirmed by the 1867 Second Treaty of London, Prussia's troops were withdrawn from the Fortress of Luxembourg, and its Bock and surrounding fortifications were dismantled. [34]

The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina, while Luxembourg (then restricted to male heirs by the Nassau Family Pact) passed to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg. [35]

At the time of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, despite allegations about French use of the Luxembourg railways for passing soldiers from Metz (then part of France) through the Duchy, and for forwarding provisions to Thionville, Luxembourg's neutrality was respected by Germany, and neither France nor Germany invaded the country. [36] [37] But in 1871, as a result of Germany's victory over France, Luxembourg's boundary with Lorraine, containing Metz and Thionville, changed from being a frontier with a part of France to a frontier with territory annexed to the German Empire as Alsace-Lorraine under the Treaty of Frankfurt. This allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.

View to Place de la Constitution and Gëlle Fra monument, from the capital's Metz square at the Adolphe Bridge end of Avenue de la Liberté, connecting with the railway station

Twentieth century

Frontier with German Empire's Alsace-Lorraine, from 1871 to 1918

In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourg's neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France. This allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence and political mechanisms.

In 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourg's neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, "entirely without justification". [38] In contrast to the First World War, under the German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II, the country was treated as German territory and informally annexed to the adjacent province of the Third Reich. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a small group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a founding member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourg's neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, and in 1949 it became a founding member of NATO.

In 1951, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Coal and Steel Community, which in 1957 would become the European Economic Community and in 1993 the European Union. In 1999 Luxembourg joined the Eurozone. In 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held. [39]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Луксембург
Afrikaans: Luxemburg
Alemannisch: Luxemburg
አማርኛ: ሉክሰምበርግ
Ænglisc: Letseburg
العربية: لوكسمبورغ
aragonés: Luxemburgo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܠܘܟܣܡܒܘܪܓ
asturianu: Luxemburgu
Avañe'ẽ: Luxemburgo
azərbaycanca: Lüksemburq
تۆرکجه: لوکزامبورق
Bân-lâm-gú: Luxembourg
башҡортса: Люксембург
беларуская: Люксембург
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Люксэмбург
भोजपुरी: लक्समबर्ग
Bikol Central: Luhemburgo
Bislama: Luxembourg
български: Люксембург
Boarisch: Luxnbuag
bosanski: Luksemburg
буряад: Люксембург
català: Luxemburg
Cebuano: Luksemburgo
čeština: Lucembursko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Luxemburgo
chiShona: Luxembourg
chiTumbuka: Luxembourg
Cymraeg: Lwcsembwrg
dansk: Luxembourg
davvisámegiella: Luxemburg
Deitsch: Luxemburg
Deutsch: Luxemburg
dolnoserbski: Luxemburgska
eesti: Luksemburg
Ελληνικά: Λουξεμβούργο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Lussembûrgh
español: Luxemburgo
estremeñu: Lussembulgu
euskara: Luxenburgo
eʋegbe: Laksembɔg
Fiji Hindi: Luxembourg
føroyskt: Luksemborg
Fulfulde: Luksammbuur
furlan: Lussemburc
Gaeilge: Lucsamburg
Gaelg: Lucsemburg
Gagauz: Lüksemburg
Gàidhlig: Lucsamburg
galego: Luxemburgo
ગુજરાતી: લક્ઝેમ્બર્ગ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: लक्संबॉर्ग
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Luxembourg
한국어: 룩셈부르크
Hausa: Luksamburg
Hawaiʻi: Lukemapuka
हिन्दी: लक्ज़मबर्ग
hornjoserbsce: Luxemburgska
hrvatski: Luksemburg
Ilokano: Luxembourg
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: লুক্সেমবুর্গ
Bahasa Indonesia: Luksemburg
interlingua: Luxemburg
Interlingue: Luxemburgia
íslenska: Lúxemborg
italiano: Lussemburgo
עברית: לוקסמבורג
Basa Jawa: Luksemburg
kalaallisut: Luxembourg (nunaat)
Kapampangan: Luxemburgo
къарачай-малкъар: Люксембург
ქართული: ლუქსემბურგი
kaszëbsczi: Luksembùrskô
қазақша: Люксембург
kernowek: Lushaborg
Kinyarwanda: Lugizamburu
Kiswahili: Luxemburg
Kongo: Luxembourg
Kreyòl ayisyen: Liksanbou (peyi)
Kurdî: Lûksembûrg
Кыргызча: Люксембург
Ladino: Luksemburgo
لۊری شومالی: لوکزامبورگ
latgaļu: Luksemburga
Latina: Luxemburgum
latviešu: Luksemburga
Lëtzebuergesch: Lëtzebuerg (Land)
lietuvių: Liuksemburgas
Ligure: Luxemburgo
lingála: Luksamburg
Livvinkarjala: L’uksemburgu
la .lojban.: lEtsyburg
lumbaart: Lüssemburgh
magyar: Luxemburg
македонски: Луксембург
Malagasy: Loksemborga
മലയാളം: ലക്സംബർഗ്
Māori: Rakapuō
მარგალური: ლუქსემბურგი
مازِرونی: لوکزامبورگ
Bahasa Melayu: Luxembourg
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Luxembourg
мокшень: Люксембур
монгол: Люксембург
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လူဇင်ဘတ်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Ruketemburg
Nederlands: Luxemburg (land)
Nedersaksies: Luxemburg (laand)
नेपाल भाषा: लक्जेम्बर्ग
нохчийн: Люксембург
Nordfriisk: Luxemborj
Norfuk / Pitkern: Luksemborg
norsk: Luxembourg
norsk nynorsk: Luxembourg
Nouormand: Luxembourg
Novial: Luxemburgia
олык марий: Люксембург
Oromoo: Laaksembargi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Lyuksemburg
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਕਸਮਬਰਗ
Pälzisch: Luxemburg
Pangasinan: Lëtzebuerg
پنجابی: لکسمبرگ
Papiamentu: Luxembourg
Patois: Logzimboerg
Перем Коми: Лецебург
Picard: Lussimbourk
Piemontèis: Lussemborgh
Plattdüütsch: Luxemborg
polski: Luksemburg
Ποντιακά: Λουξεμβούργο
português: Luxemburgo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Lyuksemburg
qırımtatarca: Lüksemburg
Ripoarisch: Luxemburg
română: Luxemburg
Romani: Luksemburgo
rumantsch: Luxemburg
Runa Simi: Luksimbur
русиньскый: Луксембурьско
русский: Люксембург
саха тыла: Лүксембург
संस्कृतम्: लक्सम्बर्ग
Scots: Luxembourg
Seeltersk: Luxembuurich
sicilianu: Lussimburgu
Simple English: Luxembourg
سنڌي: لڪسمبرگ
SiSwati: Lusembogu
slovenčina: Luxembursko
slovenščina: Luksemburg
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Люѯємбоургъ
ślůnski: Luksymburg
Soomaaliga: Luksemburg
Sranantongo: Luksemburgkondre
српски / srpski: Луксембург
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Luksemburg
Basa Sunda: Luksemburg
suomi: Luxemburg
svenska: Luxemburg
Tagalog: Luxembourg
Taqbaylit: Luxembourg
tarandíne: Lussemburghe
татарча/tatarça: Люксембург
tetun: Luxemburgu
тоҷикӣ: Люксембург
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎸᎧᏎᏋᎩ
Türkçe: Lüksemburg
Türkmençe: Lüksemburg
удмурт: Люксембург
українська: Люксембург
اردو: لکسمبرگ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ليۇكسېمبۇرگ
vèneto: Lusenburgo
vepsän kel’: Lüksemburg
Tiếng Việt: Luxembourg
Volapük: Luxämburgän
文言: 盧森堡
West-Vlams: Luxemburg (land)
Winaray: Luxemburgo
Wolof: Luksambuur
吴语: 卢森堡
Xitsonga: Luxembourg
ייִדיש: לוקסעמבורג
粵語: 盧森堡
žemaitėška: Lioksemborgs
中文: 卢森堡
Kabɩyɛ: Lugizamburi