Luxembourg

  • grand duchy of luxembourg

    • groussherzogtum lëtzebuerg  (luxembourgish)
    • grand-duché de luxembourg  (french)
    • großherzogtum luxemburg  (german)
    flag of luxembourg
    flag
    coat of arms of luxembourg
    coat of arms
    motto: 
    "mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn" (luxembourgish)
    "nous voulons rester ce que nous sommes" (french)
    "wir wollen bleiben, was wir sind" (german)
    "we want to remain what we are"
    anthem: "ons heemecht"
    ("our homeland")

    royal anthem"de wilhelmus"a
    location of luxembourg (dark green) – in europe (green & dark grey) – in the european union (green)
    location of luxembourg (dark green)

    – in europe (green & dark grey)
    – in the european union (green)

    capital
    and largest city
    luxembourg city
    49°48′52″n 06°07′54″e / 49°48′52″n 06°07′54″e / 49.81444; 6.13167
    official languages
    • luxembourgish
    • french
    • german[a]
    nationality (2017)
    • 50.9% luxembourgers
    • 18.2% portuguese
    • 13.5% french
    • 10.3% germans
    • 7.1% other
    religion
    catholic church (state support)[1]
    demonym(s)luxembourger
    governmentunitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    • monarch (list)
    henri
    • prime minister (list)
    xavier bettel
    • co-deputy prime ministers
    • etienne schneider
    • françois bausch
    legislaturechamber of deputies
    independence
    • from the french empire and elevation to grand duchy of luxembourg
    15 march 1815
    • independence in personal union with the netherlands (treaty of london)
    19 april 1839
    • reaffirmation of independence treaty of london
    11 may 1867
    • end of personal union with the kingdom of the netherlands
    23 november 1890
    • from the german reich
    1944 / 1945
    • admitted to the united nations
    24 october 1945
    • founded the eec[b]
    1 january 1958
    area
    • total
    2,586.4 km2 (998.6 sq mi) (167th)
    • water (%)
    0.60%
    population
    • january 2019 estimate
    increase 613,894[2] (164th)
    • 2001 census
    439,539
    • density
    233.7/km2 (605.3/sq mi) (58th)
    gdp (ppp)2019 estimate
    • total
    increase $66.848 billion[3] (99th)
    • per capita
    increase $108,951[3] (2nd)
    gdp (nominal)2019 estimate
    • total
    decrease $69.453 billion[3] (69th)
    • per capita
    decrease $113,196[3] (1st)
    gini (2018)negative increase 33.2[4]
    medium · 19th
    hdi (2018)increase 0.909[5]
    very high · 21st
    currencyeuro ()b (eur)
    time zoneutc+1 (cet)
    • summer (dst)
    utc+2 (cest)
    note: although luxembourg is located in western european time/utc (z) zone, since 1 june 1904, lmt (utc+0:24:36) was abandoned and central european time/[1] with a +0:35:24 offset (+1:35:24 during dst) from luxembourg city’s lmt.
    driving sideright
    calling code+352
    iso 3166 codelu
    internet tld.luc
    1. not the same as the het wilhelmus of the netherlands.
    2. before 1999, luxembourgish franc.
    3. the .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other european union member states.
    4. ^ "field listing – distribution of family income – gini index". the world factbook. central intelligence agency. retrieved 3 may 2013.
    interactive map showing the border of luxembourg

    luxembourg (ɡ/ (about this soundlisten) luk-səm-burg;[6] luxembourgish: lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuə̯ɕ] (about this soundlisten); french: luxembourg; german: luxemburg), officially the grand duchy of luxembourg,[c] is a landlocked country in western europe. it is bordered by belgium to the west and north, germany to the east, and france to the south. its capital, luxembourg city, is one of the four official capitals of the european union[7] (together with brussels, frankfurt, and strasbourg) and the seat of the european court of justice, the highest judicial authority in the eu. its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of french and german cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: french, german, and the national language of luxembourgish. the repeated invasions by germany, especially in world war ii, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between france and germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the european union.[8]

    with an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in europe.[9] in 2019, luxembourg had a population of 613,894, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in europe,[10] but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.[11] foreigners account for nearly half of luxembourg's population.[12] as a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by grand duke henri and is the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy. luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest gdp (ppp) per capita. the city of luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a unesco world heritage site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.[13]

    the history of luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count siegfried acquired a rocky promontory and its roman-era fortifications known as lucilinburhuc, "little castle", and the surrounding area from the imperial abbey of st. maximin in nearby trier.[14][15] siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. at the end of the 13th century, the counts of luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory.[16] in 1308, henry vii, count of luxembourg became king of the germans and later holy roman emperor. the house of luxembourg produced four emperors during the high middle ages. in 1354, charles iv elevated the county to the duchy of luxembourg. the duchy eventually became part of the burgundian circle and then one of the seventeen provinces of the habsburg netherlands.[17] over the centuries, the city and fortress of luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the kingdom of france and the habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in europe. after belonging to both the france of louis xiv and the austria of maria theresa, luxembourg became part of the first french republic and empire under napoleon.[18]

    the present-day state of luxembourg first emerged at the congress of vienna in 1815. the grand duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of william i of the netherlands with a prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from france.[19] in 1839, following the turmoil of the belgian revolution, the purely french-speaking part of luxembourg was ceded to belgium and the luxembourgish-speaking part (except the arelerland, the area around arlon) became what is the present state of luxembourg.[20]

    luxembourg is a founding member of the european union, oecd, united nations, nato, and benelux. the city of luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the eu. luxembourg served on the united nations security council for the years 2013 and 2014, which was a first in the country's history.[21] as of 2020, luxembourg citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the luxembourgish passport second in the world, tied with germany, finland and spain.[22]

  • history
  • politics
  • geography
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • footnotes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

  • Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg  (Luxembourgish)
  • Grand-Duché de Luxembourg  (French)
  • Großherzogtum Luxemburg  (German)
Anthem: "Ons Heemecht"
("Our Homeland")

Location of Luxembourg (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
Location of Luxembourg (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Luxembourg City
49°48′52″N 06°07′54″E / 49°48′52″N 06°07′54″E / 49.81444; 6.13167
Official languages
Nationality (2017)
Religion
Catholic Church (State support)[1]
Demonym(s)Luxembourger
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch (list)
Henri
Xavier Bettel
LegislatureChamber of Deputies
Independence
• from the French Empire and elevation to Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
15 March 1815
• Independence in personal Union with the Netherlands (Treaty of London)
19 April 1839
• Reaffirmation of Independence Treaty of London
11 May 1867
23 November 1890
• from the German Reich
1944 / 1945
24 October 1945
• Founded the EEC[b]
1 January 1958
Area
• Total
2,586.4 km2 (998.6 sq mi) (167th)
• Water (%)
0.60%
Population
• January 2019 estimate
Increase 613,894[2] (164th)
• 2001 census
439,539
• Density
233.7/km2 (605.3/sq mi) (58th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $66.848 billion[3] (99th)
• Per capita
Increase $108,951[3] (2nd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Decrease $69.453 billion[3] (69th)
• Per capita
Decrease $113,196[3] (1st)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 33.2[4]
medium · 19th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.909[5]
very high · 21st
CurrencyEuro ()b (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Note: Although Luxembourg is located in Western European Time/UTC (Z) zone, since 1 June 1904, LMT (UTC+0:24:36) was abandoned and Central European Time/[1] with a +0:35:24 offset (+1:35:24 during DST) from Luxembourg City’s LMT.
Driving sideright
Calling code+352
ISO 3166 codeLU
Internet TLD.luc
  1. Not the same as the Het Wilhelmus of the Netherlands.
  2. Before 1999, Luxembourgish franc.
  3. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.
  4. ^ "Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
Interactive map showing the border of Luxembourg

Luxembourg (ɡ/ (About this soundlisten) LUK-səm-burg;[6] Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuə̯ɕ] (About this soundlisten); French: Luxembourg; German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg,[c] is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the four official capitals of the European Union[7] (together with Brussels, Frankfurt, and Strasbourg) and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language of Luxembourgish. The repeated invasions by Germany, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union.[8]

With an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe.[9] In 2019, Luxembourg had a population of 613,894, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe,[10] but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.[11] Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population.[12] As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. The City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.[13]

The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, "little castle", and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier.[14][15] Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory.[16] In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and later Holy Roman Emperor. The House of Luxembourg produced four emperors during the High Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the county to the Duchy of Luxembourg. The duchy eventually became part of the Burgundian Circle and then one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands.[17] Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresa, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon.[18]

The present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France.[19] In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part (except the Arelerland, the area around Arlon) became what is the present state of Luxembourg.[20]

Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, which was a first in the country's history.[21] As of 2020, Luxembourg citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport second in the world, tied with Germany, Finland and Spain.[22]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Луксембург
Afrikaans: Luxemburg
Alemannisch: Luxemburg
አማርኛ: ሉክሰምበርግ
Ænglisc: Letseburg
العربية: لوكسمبورغ
aragonés: Luxemburgo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܠܘܟܣܡܒܘܪܓ
armãneashti: Luxemburg
arpetan: Lussembôrg
asturianu: Luxemburgu
Avañe'ẽ: Luxemburgo
azərbaycanca: Lüksemburq
تۆرکجه: لوکزامبورق
Bân-lâm-gú: Luxembourg
башҡортса: Люксембург
беларуская: Люксембург
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Люксэмбург
भोजपुरी: लक्समबर्ग
Bikol Central: Luhemburgo
Bislama: Luxembourg
български: Люксембург
Boarisch: Luxnbuag
bosanski: Luksemburg
буряад: Люксембург
català: Luxemburg
Cebuano: Lugsemburg
čeština: Lucembursko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Luxemburgo
chiShona: Luxembourg
chiTumbuka: Luxembourg
Cymraeg: Lwcsembwrg
dansk: Luxembourg
davvisámegiella: Luxemburg
Deitsch: Luxemburg
Deutsch: Luxemburg
dolnoserbski: Luxemburgska
eesti: Luksemburg
Ελληνικά: Λουξεμβούργο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Lussembûrgh
español: Luxemburgo
estremeñu: Lussembulgu
euskara: Luxenburgo
eʋegbe: Laksembɔg
Fiji Hindi: Luxembourg
føroyskt: Luksemborg
français: Luxembourg
Fulfulde: Luksammbuur
furlan: Lussemburc
Gaeilge: Lucsamburg
Gaelg: Lucsemburg
Gagauz: Lüksemburg
Gàidhlig: Lucsamburg
galego: Luxemburgo
ГӀалгӀай: Люксембург
ગુજરાતી: લક્ઝેમ્બર્ગ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: लक्संबॉर्ग
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Luxembourg
한국어: 룩셈부르크
Hausa: Luksamburg
Hawaiʻi: Lukemapuka
हिन्दी: लक्ज़मबर्ग
hornjoserbsce: Luxemburgska
hrvatski: Luksemburg
Ilokano: Luxembourg
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: লুক্সেমবুর্গ
Bahasa Indonesia: Luksemburg
interlingua: Luxemburg
Interlingue: Luxemburgia
íslenska: Lúxemborg
italiano: Lussemburgo
עברית: לוקסמבורג
Kabɩyɛ: Lugizamburi
kalaallisut: Luxembourg (nunaat)
Kapampangan: Luxemburgo
къарачай-малкъар: Люксембург
ქართული: ლუქსემბურგი
kaszëbsczi: Luksembùrg
қазақша: Люксембург
kernowek: Lushaborg
Kinyarwanda: Lugizamburu
Kiswahili: Luxemburg
Kongo: Luxembourg
Kreyòl ayisyen: Liksanbou (peyi)
kriyòl gwiyannen: Liksanbour (péyi)
kurdî: Lûksembûrg
Кыргызча: Люксембург
Ladino: Luksemburgo
لۊری شومالی: لۊکزامبورگ
latgaļu: Luksemburga
Latina: Luxemburgum
latviešu: Luksemburga
Lëtzebuergesch: Lëtzebuerg (Land)
lietuvių: Liuksemburgas
Ligure: Luscemburgo
lingála: Luksamburg
Lingua Franca Nova: Luxemburg
Livvinkarjala: L’uksemburgu
la .lojban.: lEtsyburg
lumbaart: Lüssemburgh
magyar: Luxemburg
македонски: Луксембург
Malagasy: Loksemborga
മലയാളം: ലക്സംബർഗ്
Māori: Rakapuō
მარგალური: ლუქსემბურგი
مازِرونی: لوکزامبورگ
Bahasa Melayu: Luxembourg
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Luxembourg
мокшень: Люксембур
монгол: Люксембург
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လူဇင်ဘတ်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Ruketemburg
Nederlands: Luxemburg (land)
Nedersaksies: Luxembörg (land)
नेपाल भाषा: लक्जेम्बर्ग
нохчийн: Люксембург
Nordfriisk: Luxemborj
Norfuk / Pitkern: Luksemborg
norsk: Luxembourg
norsk nynorsk: Luxembourg
Nouormand: Luxembourg
Novial: Luxemburgia
олык марий: Люксембург
Oromoo: Laaksembargi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Lyuksemburg
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਕਸਮਬਰਗ
Pälzisch: Luxemburg
Pangasinan: Lëtzebuerg
پنجابی: لکسمبرگ
Papiamentu: Luxembourg
Patois: Logzimboerg
Перем Коми: Лецебург
Picard: Lussimbourk
Piemontèis: Lussemborgh
Plattdüütsch: Luxemborg
polski: Luksemburg
Ποντιακά: Λουξεμβούργο
português: Luxemburgo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Lyuksemburg
qırımtatarca: Lüksemburg
Ripoarisch: Luxemburg
română: Luxemburg
romani čhib: Luksemburgo
rumantsch: Luxemburg
Runa Simi: Luksimbur
русиньскый: Луксембурьско
русский: Люксембург
саха тыла: Лүксембург
Sakizaya: Luxembourg
Gagana Samoa: Luxembourg
संस्कृतम्: लक्सम्बर्ग
Scots: Luxembourg
Seeltersk: Luxembuurich
sicilianu: Lussimburgu
Simple English: Luxembourg
سنڌي: لڪسمبرگ
SiSwati: Lusembogu
slovenčina: Luxembursko
slovenščina: Luksemburg
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Люѯємбоургъ
ślůnski: Luksymburg
Soomaaliga: Luksemburg
Sranantongo: Luksemburgkondre
српски / srpski: Луксембург
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Luksemburg
Sunda: Luksemburg
suomi: Luxemburg
svenska: Luxemburg
Tagalog: Luxembourg
Taqbaylit: Luxembourg
tarandíne: Lussemburghe
татарча/tatarça: Люксембург
tetun: Luxemburgu
тоҷикӣ: Люксембург
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎸᎧᏎᏋᎩ
Türkçe: Lüksemburg
Türkmençe: Lüksemburg
удмурт: Люксембург
українська: Люксембург
اردو: لکسمبرگ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ليۇكسېمبۇرگ
Vahcuengh: Luxembourg
vèneto: Lusenburgo
vepsän kel’: Lüksemburg
Tiếng Việt: Luxembourg
Volapük: Luxämburgän
文言: 盧森堡
West-Vlams: Luxemburg (land)
Winaray: Luxemburgo
Wolof: Luksambuur
吴语: 卢森堡
Xitsonga: Luxembourg
ייִדיש: לוקסעמבורג
粵語: 盧森堡
žemaitėška: Lioksemborgs
中文: 卢森堡