this article is about the country. for the city, see luxembourg city. for other uses, see luxembourg (disambiguation).
grand duchy of luxembourg
grand-duché de luxembourg(french)
coat of arms
motto: "mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn"(luxembourgish) "nous voulons rester ce que nous sommes"(french) "wir wollen bleiben, was wir sind"(german) "we want to remain what we are"
anthem: "ons heemecht" ("our homeland")
royal anthem: "de wilhelmus"a
location of luxembourg (dark green)
– in europe (green & dark grey) – in the european union (green)
and largest city
luxembourg city 49°48′52″n06°07′54″e / 49°48′52″n06°07′54″e / 49.81444; 6.13167
catholic church (state support)
• prime minister(list)
• co-deputy prime ministers
chamber of deputies
• from the french empire and elevation to grand duchy of luxembourg
15 march 1815
• independence in personal union with the netherlands (treaty of london)
19 april 1839
• reaffirmation of independence treaty of london
11 may 1867
• end of personal union with the kingdom of the netherlands
23 november 1890
• from the german reich
1944 / 1945
• admitted to theunited nations
24 october 1945
• founded the eec[b]
1 january 1958
2,586.4 km2 (998.6 sq mi) (167th)
• water (%)
• january 2019 estimate
• 2001 census
233.7/km2 (605.3/sq mi) (58th)
$66.848 billion (99th)
• per capita
$69.453 billion (69th)
• per capita
33.2 medium · 19th
0.909 very high · 21st
euro (€)b (eur)
• summer (dst)
note: although luxembourg is located in western european time/utc (z) zone, since 1 june 1904, lmt (utc+0:24:36) was abandoned and central european time/ with a +0:35:24 offset (+1:35:24 during dst) from luxembourg city’s lmt.
iso 3166 code
not the same as the het wilhelmus of the netherlands.
before 1999, luxembourgish franc.
the .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other european union member states.
^"field listing – distribution of family income – gini index". the world factbook. central intelligence agency. retrieved 3 may 2013.
interactive map showing the border of luxembourg
luxembourg (ɡ/ (listen)luk-səm-burg;luxembourgish: lëtzebuerg[ˈlətsəbuə̯ɕ](listen); french: luxembourg; german: luxemburg), officially the grand duchy of luxembourg,[c] is a landlocked country in western europe. it is bordered by belgium to the west and north, germany to the east, and france to the south. its capital, luxembourg city, is one of the four official capitals of the european union (together with brussels, frankfurt, and strasbourg) and the seat of the european court of justice, the highest judicial authority in the eu. its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of french and german cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: french, german, and the national language of luxembourgish. the repeated invasions by germany, especially in world war ii, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between france and germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the european union.
with an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in europe. in 2019, luxembourg had a population of 613,894, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate. foreigners account for nearly half of luxembourg's population. as a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by grand duke henri and is the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy. luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest gdp (ppp) per capita. the city of luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a unescoworld heritage site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.
the history of luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count siegfried acquired a rocky promontory and its roman-era fortifications known as lucilinburhuc, "little castle", and the surrounding area from the imperial abbey of st. maximin in nearby trier. siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. at the end of the 13th century, the counts of luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. in 1308, henry vii, count of luxembourg became king of the germans and later holy roman emperor. the house of luxembourg produced four emperors during the high middle ages. in 1354, charles iv elevated the county to the duchy of luxembourg. the duchy eventually became part of the burgundian circle and then one of the seventeen provinces of the habsburg netherlands.
over the centuries, the city and fortress of luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the kingdom of france and the habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in europe. after belonging to both the france of louis xiv and the austria of maria theresa, luxembourg became part of the first french republic and empire under napoleon.
the present-day state of luxembourg first emerged at the congress of vienna in 1815. the grand duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of william i of the netherlands with a prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from france. in 1839, following the turmoil of the belgian revolution, the purely french-speaking part of luxembourg was ceded to belgium and the luxembourgish-speaking part (except the arelerland, the area around arlon) became what is the present state of luxembourg.
luxembourg is a founding member of the european union, oecd, united nations, nato, and benelux. the city of luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the eu. luxembourg served on the united nations security council for the years 2013 and 2014, which was a first in the country's history. as of 2020, luxembourg citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the luxembourgish passport second in the world, tied with germany, finland and spain.
The present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part (except the Arelerland, the area around Arlon) became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, which was a first in the country's history. As of 2020, Luxembourg citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport second in the world, tied with Germany, Finland and Spain.