Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII
Luis XIII, rey de Francia (Philippe de Champaigne).jpg
King Louis XIII (by Philippe de Champaigne, 1655)
King of France
Reign14 May 1610 – 14 May 1643
Coronation17 October 1610
Reims Cathedral
PredecessorHenry IV
SuccessorLouis XIV
RegentMarie de' Medici (1610–14)
King of Navarre
Reign14 May 1610 – 1620
PredecessorHenry III
SuccessorMerged into the Kingdom of France
Born(1601-09-27)27 September 1601
Château de Fontainebleau, France
Died14 May 1643(1643-05-14) (aged 41)
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
SpouseAnne of Austria
IssueLouis XIV of France
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
Full name
French: Louis de France
FatherHenry IV, King of France
MotherMarie de' Medici
ReligionRoman Catholicism
SignatureLouis XIII's signature

Louis XIII (French pronunciation: ​[lwi tʁɛz]; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who was King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. His mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court.

Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française, and ending the revolt of the French nobility. They systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence (dueling, carrying weapons, and maintaining private armies). By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the ruling doctrine.[1] The reign of Louis "the Just" was also marked by the struggles against the Huguenots and Habsburg Spain.[2]

Early life, 1601–10

Born at the Château de Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the oldest child of King Henry IV of France and his second wife Marie de' Medici. As son of the king, he was a Fils de France ("son of France"), and as the eldest son, Dauphin of France. His father Henry IV was the first French king of the House of Bourbon, having succeeded his ninth cousin, Henry III of France (1574–1589), in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre. His maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany. Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother.[3] As a child, he was raised under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Montglat.

The ambassador of King James I of England to the court of France, Sir Edward Herbert, who presented his credentials to Louis XIII in 1619, remarked on Louis’s extreme congenital speech impediment and his double teeth:

...I presented to the King [Louis] a letter of credence from the King [James] my master: the King [Louis] assured me of a reciprocal affection to the King [James] my master, and of my particular welcome to his Court: his words were never many, as being so extream [sic] a stutterer that he would sometimes hold his tongue out of his mouth a good while before he could speak so much as one word; he had besides a double row of teeth, and was observed seldom or never to spit or blow his nose, or to sweat much, 'tho he were very laborious, and almost indefatigable in his exercises of hunting and hawking, to which he was much addicted...[4]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: XIII Lüdovik
Bân-lâm-gú: Louis 13-sè
беларуская: Людовік XIII
български: Луи XIII
Чӑвашла: Людовик XIII
čeština: Ludvík XIII.
Deutsch: Ludwig XIII.
eesti: Louis XIII
français: Louis XIII
한국어: 루이 13세
Bahasa Indonesia: Louis XIII dari Prancis
íslenska: Loðvík 13.
ქართული: ლუი XIII
қазақша: Людовик XIII
latviešu: Luijs XIII
lietuvių: Liudvikas XIII
македонски: Луј XIII
polski: Ludwik XIII
русский: Людовик XIII
Simple English: Louis XIII of France
slovenčina: Ľudovít XIII.
slovenščina: Ludvik XIII. Francoski
српски / srpski: Луј XIII
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Louis XIII od Francuske
Taqbaylit: Lwis XIII
татарча/tatarça: XIII Луи
Türkçe: XIII. Louis
Tiếng Việt: Louis XIII của Pháp
吴语: 路易十三
粵語: 路易十三
中文: 路易十三