Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII
Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, c. 1630-1639
King of France
Reign 14 May 1610 – 14 May 1643
Coronation 17 October 1610
Reims Cathedral
Predecessor Henry IV
Successor Louis XIV
Regent Marie de' Medici (1610–14)
King of Navarre
Reign 14 May 1610 – 1620
Predecessor Henry III
Successor Merged into French kingdom
Born (1601-09-27)27 September 1601
Château de Fontainebleau, France
Died 14 May 1643(1643-05-14) (aged 41)
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Burial Basilica of St Denis, France
Spouse Anne of Austria
Issue Louis XIV, King of France
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
Full name
French: Louis de France
House Bourbon
Father Henry IV, King of France
Mother Marie de' Medici
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Louis XIII's signature

Louis XIII (French pronunciation: ​ [lwi tʁɛz]; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. His mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court.

Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française, and ending the revolt of the French nobility. They systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence ( dueling, carrying weapons, and maintaining private army). By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. [1]The reign of Louis "the Just" was also marked by the struggles against Huguenots and Habsburg Spain. [2]

France's greatest victory in the conflicts against the Habsburg Empire during the period 1635–59 came at the Battle of Rocroi (1643), five days after Louis's death caused by apparent complications of intestinal tuberculosis. This battle marked the end of Spain's military ascendancy in Europe and foreshadowed French dominance in Europe under Louis XIV, his son and successor. [3]

Early life, 1601–10

Born at the Château de Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the oldest child of King Henry IV of France and his second wife Marie de' Medici. As son of the king, he was a Fils de France ("son of France"), and as the eldest son, Dauphin of France. His father Henry IV was the first French king of the House of Bourbon, having succeeded his ninth cousin, Henry III of France (1574–1589), in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre. His maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany. Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother. [4] As a child, he was raised under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Montglat.

The ambassador of King James I of England to the court of France, Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, who presented his credentials to Louis XIII in 1619, remarked on Louis’s extreme congenital speech impediment and his double teeth:

...I presented to the King [Louis] a letter of credence from the King [James] my master: the King [Louis] assured me of a reciprocal affection to the King [James] my master, and of my particular welcome to his Court: his words were never many, as being so extream [ sic] a stutterer that he would sometimes hold his tongue out of his mouth a good while before he could speak so much as one word; he had besides a double row of teeth, and was observed seldom or never to spit or blow his nose, or to sweat much, 'tho he were very laborious, and almost indefatigable in his exercises of hunting and hawking, to which he was much addicted... [5]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: XIII Lüdovik
Bân-lâm-gú: Louis 13-sè
беларуская: Людовік XIII
български: Луи XIII
Чӑвашла: Людовик XIII
čeština: Ludvík XIII.
Deutsch: Ludwig XIII.
eesti: Louis XIII
français: Louis XIII
한국어: 루이 13세
Bahasa Indonesia: Louis XIII dari Perancis
íslenska: Loðvík 13.
ქართული: ლუი XIII
қазақша: Людовик XIII
latviešu: Luijs XIII
lietuvių: Liudvikas XIII
македонски: Луј XIII
polski: Ludwik XIII
русский: Людовик XIII
Simple English: Louis XIII of France
slovenčina: Ľudovít XIII.
slovenščina: Ludvik XIII. Francoski
српски / srpski: Луј XIII
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Louis XIII od Francuske
Taqbaylit: Lwis XIII
Tiếng Việt: Louis XIII của Pháp
吴语: 路易十三
粵語: 路易十三
中文: 路易十三