Louis IX of France

Saint Louis IX
Saintlouis.jpg
Contemporary depiction from about 1230
King of France (more...)
Reign8 November 1226 – 25 August 1270
Coronation29 November 1226 in Reims Cathedral
PredecessorLouis VIII
SuccessorPhilip III
Born25 April 1214
Poissy, France
Died25 August 1270 (aged 56)
French Tunis, North Africa
Burial
Spouse
Issue
among others...
HouseCapet
FatherLouis VIII, King of France
MotherBlanche of Castile
ReligionRoman Catholicism
French Monarchy
Direct Capetians
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg
Hugh Capet
Robert II
Henry I
Philip I
Louis VI
Louis VII
Philip II
Louis VIII
Louis IX
Philip III
Philip IV
Louis X
John I
Philip V
Charles IV

Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France, the ninth from the House of Capet, and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII; his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom as regent until he reached maturity. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and obtained a definitive victory in the Albigensian Crusade which had started 20 years earlier.

As an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most-powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions, but was utterly defeated at the battle of Taillebourg. His reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably parts of Aquitaine, Maine and Provence.

Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king was the supreme judge to whom anyone could appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, and introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedure. To enforce the application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.

Following a vow he made after a serious illness and confirmed after a miraculous cure, Louis IX took an active part in the Seventh and Eighth Crusades. He died from dysentery during the latter crusade, and was succeeded by his son Philip III.

Louis's actions were inspired by Christian zeal and Catholic devotion. He decided to severely punish blasphemy (for which he set the punishment to mutilation of the tongue and lips),[1] gambling, interest-bearing loans and prostitution. He spent exorbitant sums on presumed relics of Christ, for which he built the Sainte-Chapelle. He expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds and other Jewish books. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are consequently many places named after him.

Sources

Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous Life of Saint Louis. Joinville was a close friend, confidant, and counselor to the king, and he also participated as a witness in the papal inquest into Louis' life that ended with his canonisation in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII.

Two other important biographies were written by the king's confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. While several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the king's death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king, and all three are biased favorably to the king. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus' 19th century biography,[2] which he wrote using the papal inquest mentioned above.

Other Languages
العربية: لويس التاسع
azərbaycanca: IX Lüdovik
Bân-lâm-gú: Louis 9-sè
български: Луи IX
eesti: Louis IX
فارسی: لوئی نهم
français: Louis IX
한국어: 루이 9세
հայերեն: Լուի IX Սուրբ
Bahasa Indonesia: Louis IX dari Prancis
íslenska: Loðvík 9.
ქართული: ლუი IX
қазақша: Людовик IX
Kiswahili: Ludoviko IX
latviešu: Luijs IX
македонски: Луј IX Светиот
Picard: Louis IX
русский: Людовик IX
sardu: Luisi IX
Simple English: Saint Louis IX of France
српски / srpski: Луј IX Свети
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Louis IX od Francuske
Türkçe: IX. Louis
українська: Людовик IX Святий
Tiếng Việt: Louis IX của Pháp