Los Angeles

This article is about the U.S. city. For the county in California, see Los Angeles County, California. For other uses, see Los Angeles (disambiguation).
"L.A." and "City of Los Angeles" redirect here. For other uses, see L.A. (disambiguation) and City of Los Angeles (disambiguation).


Los Angeles
Metropolitan City
City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles skyline
Hollywood Sign Echo Park Lake
Los Angeles City Hall Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport
Vincent Thomas Bridge Venice Beach
Flag of Los Angeles
Flag
Official seal of Los Angeles
Seal
Nickname(s): "L.A.", "City of Angels", [1] "Angeltown", [2] " The Entertainment Capital of the World", "The Big Orange" [1] "La-la-land", "Tinseltown" [1]
Location in Los Angeles County in the state of California
Location in Los Angeles County in the state of California
Los Angeles is located in California
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles is located in the US
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 34°03′N 118°15′W / 34.050°N 118.250°W / 34°03′N 118°15′W / 34.050; -118.250
Country   United States
State   California
County

Los Angeles


CSA Los Angeles-Long Beach
MSA Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim
Pueblo September 4, 1781 [3]
Incorporated April 4, 1850 [4]
Named for Our Lady, Queen of the Angels
Government
 • Type Mayor-Council-Commission [5]
 • Body Los Angeles City Council
 •  Mayor Eric Garcetti [6]
 •  City Attorney Mike Feuer [6]
 •  City Controller Ron Galperin [6]
Area [7]
 •  Metropolitan City 503 sq mi (1,302 km2)
 • Land 469 sq mi (1,214 km2)
 • Water 34 sq mi (88 km2)  6.7%
Elevation [8] 305 ft (93 m)
Highest elevation [9] 5,074 ft (1,547 m)
Lowest elevation [9] 0 ft (0 m)
Population (January 1, 2015) [10]
 •  Metropolitan City 3,971,883
 • Rank 1st, California
2nd, U.S.
 • Density 8,282/sq mi (3,198/km2)
 •  Urban [11] 12,150,996
 •  Metro [12] 13,131,431
 •  CSA [13] 18,679,763 (US: 2nd)
Demonym(s) Angeleno
Time zone Pacific ( UTC−8)
 • Summer ( DST) PDT ( UTC−7)
ZIP codes 90001–90068, 90070–90084, 90086–90089, 90091, 90093–90097, 90099, 90101–90103, 90174, 90185, 90189, 90291–90293, 91040–91043, 91303–91308, 91342–91349, 91352–91353, 91356–91357, 91364–91367, 91401–91499, 91601–91609
Area codes 213, 310/424, 562, 323, 661, 747/818
FIPS code 06-44000
GNIS feature IDs 1662328, 2410877
Website Official website

Los Angeles ( Listen i /lɒs ˈænəls/, Spanish for "The Angels"), [14] officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the second-most populous city in the United States (after New York City), the most populous city in California and the county seat of Los Angeles County. Situated in Southern California, Los Angeles is known for its mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, sprawling metropolis, and as a major center of the American entertainment industry. Los Angeles lies in a large coastal basin surrounded on three sides by mountains reaching up to and over 10,000 feet (3,000 m).

Historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The city experienced rapid growth with the discovery of oil. [15]

The city is the focal point of the larger Los Angeles metropolitan area and the Greater Los Angeles Area region, which contain 13 million [16] and over 18 million people, respectively, as of 2010, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world as well as the second-largest in the United States and the densest urban area in the United States. Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The city's inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos.

Nicknamed the "City of Angels", Los Angeles is a global city with a diverse economy in entertainment, culture, media, fashion, science, sports, technology, education, medicine and research. It has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index. The city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area (CSA) has a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $831 billion (as of 2008), making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas.

Los Angeles includes Hollywood and leads the world in the creation of television productions and recorded music; it is also one of the leaders in motion picture production.

L.A. hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city to have hosted the Games three times (after London). The Los Angeles area also hosted the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup final match; both games were held at the Rose Bowl in the nearby town of Pasadena. The men's event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide. [17]

History

Historical affiliations

Spanish Empire 1519–1821
First Mexican Empire 1821–1823
Mexico United Mexican States 1823–1848
California Republic 1846
  United States 1848–present

Pre-colonial period

Chumash people lived in Los Angeles before Europeans settled there.

The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva (Gabrieleños) and Chumash Native American tribes thousands of years ago. A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), meaning "poison oak place". [18] [19]

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese-born explorer, claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire of the Kingdom of Spain in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America. [20] Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. [21]

Spanish period

In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. [22] On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as " Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo called "El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula"; in English it is "The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of Porciúncula". The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary. [23] Two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. [24] The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. [25] Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. [26]

Mexican period

New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital.[ citation needed]

American period

Old Los Angeles
LosAngeles-Plaza-1869.jpg
Los Ángeles Plaza in 1869, looking north towards Upper Town.

Old Los Angeles overlay labeled.jpeg

Legend

  1. The Old Aliso, giant sycamore, historical symbol of Los Angeles.
  2. The Covered Bridge (Macy Street)
  3. Fort Moore
  4. The Calaboose (original adobe jail)
  5. Poundcake Hill
  6. Council Chamber
  7. Government House, seat of the Asamblea when Los Angeles was the capital.
  8. Clocktower Courthouse, courtroom/theatre was on the upper floor, market was on the ground floor, and clocktower was on top, with copper dome.
  9. St. Athanasius' Episcopal Church, first Protestant church in Los Angeles, on Temple Road ("Salvation Alley").
  10. Calle de los Negros
  11. Mellus Block, Gen. Kearney's headquarters
  12. Gov. Downey's house
  13. Old stage road, to Cahuenga Valley & the back way to San Fernando.
  14. Placita Church
  15. Wine Street, (Calle de las vides)
  16. Main Plaza
  17. Water wheel on the Zanja Madre
  18. Approximate run of the original Los Angeles River bed, to current USC, through the former swamps of Leimert Park, and out to sea at Ballona Creek and Venice Beach.

    LP: Lower Plaza

    ECR: El Camino Real

Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. [27]

Railroads arrived with the completion of the Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876. [28] Oil was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. [29]

By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000, [30] putting pressure on the city's water supply. [31] The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. [32]

In 1910, Hollywood merged into Los Angeles, with 10 movie companies already operating in the city at the time. By 1921, more than 80 percent of the world's film industry was concentrated in L.A. [33] The money generated by the industry kept the city insulated from much of the economic loss suffered by the rest of the country during the Great Depression. [34] By 1930, the population surpassed one million. [35] In 1932, the city hosted the Summer Olympics.

During World War II, Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Calship built hundreds of Liberty Ships and Victory Ships on Terminal Island, and the Los Angeles area was the headquarters of six of the country's major aircraft manufacturers ( Douglas Aircraft Company, Hughes Aircraft, Lockheed, North American Aviation, Northrop Corporation, and Vultee). During the war, more aircraft were produced in one year than in all the pre-war years since the Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903, combined. Manufacturing in Los Angeles skyrocketed, and as William S. Knudsen, of the National Defense Advisory Commission put it, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible. [36]

The Richfield Tower, an Art Deco landmark of 1929, was demolished in 1969.

Following the end of World War II, Los Angeles grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the San Fernando Valley. [37] The expansion of the Interstate Highway System during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system, once the world's largest.

The 1960s saw race relations boil over into the Watts Riots of 1965 which resulted in 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992. In 1969, Los Angeles became the birthplace of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to SRI in Menlo Park. [38]

In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous, [39] and the second Olympics to turn a profit until then – the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles. [40]

Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a Simi Valley jury of the police officers captured on videotape beating Rodney King, culminating in large-scale riots. [41] They were the largest riots in US history causing approximately $1.3 billion in damage as well as 53 deaths and over 2,000 injuries. [42] [43]

In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. [44] The century ended with the Rampart scandal, one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history. [45]

In 2002, voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city. [46]