Los Angeles

Los Angeles
Metropolitan City
City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles skyline
Hollywood Sign Echo Park Lake
Los Angeles City Hall Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport
Vincent Thomas Bridge Venice Beach
Flag of Los Angeles
Flag
Official seal of Los Angeles
Seal
Nickname(s): "L.A.", "City of Angels", [1] "Angeltown", [2] " The Entertainment Capital of the World", "The Big Orange", [1] "La-la-land", "Tinseltown" [1]
Location in Los Angeles County in the state of California
Location in Los Angeles County in the state of California
Los Angeles is located in California
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles is located in the US
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 34°03′N 118°15′W / 34°03′N 118°15′W / 34.050; -118.250
Country   United States
State   California
County

Los Angeles


CSA Los Angeles-Long Beach
MSA Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim
Pueblo September 4, 1781 [3]
Incorporated April 4, 1850 [4]
Named for Our Lady, Queen of the Angels
Government
 • Type Mayor-Council-Commission [5]
 • Body Los Angeles City Council
 •  Mayor Eric Garcetti [6]
 •  City Attorney Mike Feuer [6]
 •  City Controller Ron Galperin [6]
Area [7]
 •  Metropolitan City 503 sq mi (1,302 km2)
 • Land 469 sq mi (1,214 km2)
 • Water 34 sq mi (88 km2)  6.7%
Elevation [8] 305 ft (93 m)
Highest elevation [9] 5,074 ft (1,547 m)
Lowest elevation [9] 0 ft (0 m)
Population (January 1, 2017) [10]
 •  Metropolitan City 4,042,000
 • Rank 1st, California
2nd, U.S.
 • Density 8,282/sq mi (3,198/km2)
 •  Urban [11] 12,150,996
 •  Metro [12] 13,131,431
 •  CSA [13] 18,679,763 (US: 2nd)
Demonym(s) Angeleno
Time zone Pacific ( UTC−8)
 • Summer ( DST) PDT ( UTC−7)
ZIP codes 90001–90068, 90070–90084, 90086–90089, 90091, 90093–90097, 90099, 90101–90103, 90174, 90185, 90189, 90291–90293, 91040–91043, 91303–91308, 91342–91349, 91352–91353, 91356–91357, 91364–91367, 91401–91499, 91601–91609
Area codes 213, 310/424, 562, 323, 661, 747/818
FIPS code 06-44000
GNIS feature IDs 1662328, 2410877
Website Official website

Los Angeles ( Listen i s/, [14] Spanish for "The Angels"; Spanish pronunciation:  [los ˈaŋxeles]), officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2017 population of 4,042,000, [15] [16] it is the second-most populous city in the United States (after New York City) and the most populous city in the state of California. Located in a large coastal basin surrounded on three sides by mountains reaching up to and over 10,000 feet (3,000 m), Los Angeles covers an area of about 469 square miles (1,210 km2). [7] The city is also the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the center of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, and is part of the larger designated Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area (CSA), the second most populous in the nation with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million. [17]

Historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. [18] The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, later assured the city's continued rapid growth.

Nicknamed the "City of Angels", Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. The city is also one of the most substantial economic engines within the nation, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is also famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index. The Los Angeles combined statistical area (CSA) also has a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $831 billion (as of 2008), making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas.

History

Historical affiliations

Spanish Empire 1781–1821
First Mexican Empire 1821–1823
Mexico United Mexican States 1823–1848
California Republic 1846
  United States 1848–present

Pre-colonial period

Chumash people lived in Los Angeles before Europeans settled there.

The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva (Gabrieleños) and Chumash Native American tribes thousands of years ago. A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), meaning "poison oak place". [19] [20]

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese-born explorer, claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire of the Kingdom of Spain in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America. [21] Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. [22]

Spanish period

In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. [23] On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as " Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo called "El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula"; in English it is "The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of Porciúncula". The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary. [24] Two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. [25] The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. [26] Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. [27]

Mexican period

New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. [28]

American period

Old Los Angeles
LosAngeles-Plaza-1869.jpg
Los Ángeles Plaza in 1869, looking north towards Upper Town.

Old Los Angeles overlay labeled.jpeg

Legend

  1. The Old Aliso, giant sycamore, historical symbol of Los Angeles.
  2. The Covered Bridge (Macy Street)
  3. Fort Moore
  4. The Calaboose (original adobe jail)
  5. Poundcake Hill
  6. Council Chamber
  7. Government House, seat of the Asamblea when Los Angeles was the capital.
  8. Clocktower Courthouse, courtroom/theatre was on the upper floor, market was on the ground floor, and clocktower was on top, with copper dome.
  9. St. Athanasius' Episcopal Church, first Protestant church in Los Angeles, on Temple Road ("Salvation Alley").
  10. Calle de los Negros
  11. Mellus Block, Gen. Kearney's headquarters
  12. Gov. Downey's house
  13. Old stage road, to Cahuenga Valley & the back way to San Fernando.
  14. Placita Church
  15. Wine Street, (Calle de las vides)
  16. Main Plaza
  17. Water wheel on the Zanja Madre
  18. Approximate run of the original Los Angeles River bed, to current USC, through the former swamps of Leimert Park, and out to sea at Ballona Creek and Venice Beach.

    LP: Lower Plaza

    ECR: El Camino Real

Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. [29]

Railroads arrived with the completion of the Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876. [30] Oil was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. [31]

By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000, [32] putting pressure on the city's water supply. [33] The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. [34] Due to clauses in the city's charter that effectively prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles. [35] [36] [37]

In 1910, Hollywood merged into Los Angeles, with 10 movie companies already operating in the city at the time. By 1921, more than 80 percent of the world's film industry was concentrated in L.A. [38] The money generated by the industry kept the city insulated from much of the economic loss suffered by the rest of the country during the Great Depression. [39] By 1930, the population surpassed one million. [40] In 1932, the city hosted the Summer Olympics.

During World War II, Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Calship built hundreds of Liberty Ships and Victory Ships on Terminal Island, and the Los Angeles area was the headquarters of six of the country's major aircraft manufacturers ( Douglas Aircraft Company, Hughes Aircraft, Lockheed, North American Aviation, Northrop Corporation, and Vultee). During the war, more aircraft were produced in one year than in all the pre-war years since the Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903, combined. Manufacturing in Los Angeles skyrocketed, and as William S. Knudsen, of the National Defense Advisory Commission put it, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible. [41]

The Richfield Tower, an Art Deco landmark of 1929, was demolished in 1969.

Following the end of World War II, Los Angeles grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the San Fernando Valley. [42] The expansion of the Interstate Highway System during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system, once the world's largest.

The 1960s saw race relations boil over into the Watts Riots of 1965 which resulted in 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992. In 1969, Los Angeles became the birthplace of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to SRI in Menlo Park. [43]

In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous, [44] and the second Olympics to turn a profit until then – the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles. [45]

Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a Simi Valley jury of the police officers captured on videotape beating Rodney King, culminating in large-scale riots. [46] They were the largest riots in US history causing approximately $1.3 billion in damage as well as 53 deaths and over 2,000 injuries. [47] [48]

In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. [49] The century ended with the Rampart scandal, one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history. [50]

In 2002, voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city. [51]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Los Angeles
Alemannisch: Los Angeles
Ænglisc: Los Angeles
Аҧсшәа: Лос-Анџелес
العربية: لوس أنجلوس
aragonés: Los Angeles
armãneashti: Los Angeles
asturianu: Los Angeles
Avañe'ẽ: Los Ángeles
Aymar aru: Los Angeles
azərbaycanca: Los-Anceles
تۆرکجه: لوس‌آنجلس
bamanankan: Los Angeles
Bân-lâm-gú: Los Angeles
башҡортса: Лос-Анджелес
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лос-Анджэлес
Bikol Central: Los Angeles
Bislama: Los Angeles
български: Лос Анджелис
Boarisch: Los Angeles
bosanski: Los Angeles
català: Los Angeles
Чӑвашла: Лос-Анджелес
Cebuano: Los Angeles
čeština: Los Angeles
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Los Angeles
Chi-Chewa: Los Angeles
Cymraeg: Los Angeles
Deitsch: Los Angeles
Deutsch: Los Angeles
dolnoserbski: Los Angeles
Ελληνικά: Λος Άντζελες
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Los Angeles
español: Los Ángeles
Esperanto: Los-Anĝeleso
estremeñu: Los Ángeles
euskara: Los Angeles
فارسی: لس‌آنجلس
føroyskt: Los Angeles
français: Los Angeles
furlan: Los Angeles
Gaeilge: Los Angeles
Gàidhlig: Los Angeles
galego: Os Ánxeles
贛語: 洛杉磯
Gĩkũyũ: Los Angeles
ગુજરાતી: લોસ એન્જેલસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Los Angeles
Հայերեն: Լոս Անջելես
hornjoserbsce: Los Angeles
Ilokano: Los Angeles
Bahasa Indonesia: Los Angeles
interlingua: Los Angeles
Interlingue: Los Angeles
íslenska: Los Angeles
italiano: Los Angeles
עברית: לוס אנג'לס
Basa Jawa: Los Angeles
къарачай-малкъар: Лос-Анджелес
ქართული: ლოს-ანჯელესი
қазақша: Лос Анжелес
kernowek: Los Angeles
Kirundi: Los Angeles
Kiswahili: Los Angeles
Kreyòl ayisyen: Los Angeles, Kalifòni
Kurdî: Los Angeles
Кыргызча: Лос-Анжелес
кырык мары: Лос-Анджелес
Latina: Angelopolis
latviešu: Losandželosa
Lëtzebuergesch: Los Angeles
lietuvių: Los Andželas
Ligure: Los Angeles
Limburgs: Los Angeles
lingála: Los Angeles
lumbaart: Los Angeles
magyar: Los Angeles
मैथिली: लस एन्जलस
македонски: Лос Анџелес
Malagasy: Los Angeles
მარგალური: ლოს-ანჯელესი
مازِرونی: لس آنجلس
Bahasa Melayu: Los Angeles
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Los Angeles
Mirandés: Los Angeles
молдовеняскэ: Лос Анӂелес
монгол: Лос-Анжелес
Dorerin Naoero: Los Angeles
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Los Angeles
Nederlands: Los Angeles
नेपाली: लस एन्जलस
नेपाल भाषा: लस एञ्जिलस
Napulitano: Los Angeles
нохчийн: Лос-Анджелес
Nordfriisk: Los Angeles
norsk bokmål: Los Angeles
norsk nynorsk: Los Angeles
Novial: Los Angeles
occitan: Los Angeles
олык марий: Лос-Анджелес
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Los Anjeles
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਾਸ ਐਂਜਲਸ
Pälzisch: Los Angeles
پنجابی: لاس اینجلس
Papiamentu: Los Angeles
Patois: Las Anjiliiz
Picard: Los Angeles
Piemontèis: Los Angeles
Plattdüütsch: Los Angeles
polski: Los Angeles
português: Los Angeles
Qaraqalpaqsha: Los Andjeles
reo tahiti: Los Angeles
română: Los Angeles
Romani: Los Angeles
rumantsch: Los Angeles
Runa Simi: Los Angeles
русиньскый: Лос Анджелес
русский: Лос-Анджелес
саха тыла: Лос Андьелес
sámegiella: Los Angeles
संस्कृतम्: लास एंजलस
Sängö: Los Angeles
Seeltersk: Los Angeles
sicilianu: Los Angeles
Simple English: Los Angeles
slovenčina: Los Angeles
slovenščina: Los Angeles
ślůnski: Los Angeles
Soomaaliga: Los Angeles
کوردیی ناوەندی: لۆس ئانجلەس
Sranantongo: Los Angeles
српски / srpski: Лос Анђелес
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Los Angeles
svenska: Los Angeles
Taqbaylit: Los Angeles
tarandíne: Los Angeles
татарча/tatarça: Лос-Анджелес
тоҷикӣ: Лос Анҷелес
Tsetsêhestâhese: Los Angeles
Türkçe: Los Angeles
Türkmençe: Los-Anjeles
українська: Лос-Анджелес
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Los Anjélés
vèneto: Los Angeles
vepsän kel’: Los Andželes
Tiếng Việt: Los Angeles
Volapük: Los Angeles
文言: 洛杉磯
Winaray: Los Angeles
吴语: 洛杉矶
Yorùbá: Los Angeles
粵語: 洛杉磯
Zazaki: Los Angeles
žemaitėška: Luos Andžels
中文: 洛杉矶
डोटेली: लस एन्जलस