Los Angeles

City of Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles
Hollywood Sign
Griffith Observatory
Los Angeles City Hall
Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport
Vincent Thomas Bridge
Venice Beach
L.A., City of Angels,[1] The Entertainment Capital of the World, The Big Orange,[1] La-la-land, Tinseltown[1]
Location within Los Angeles County
Location within Los Angeles County
Los Angeles is located in California
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Location within California
Los Angeles is located in the United States
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Location within the United States
Los Angeles is located in North America
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Location within North America
Coordinates: 34°03′N 118°15′W / 34°03′N 118°15′W / 34.050; -118.250UTC−07:00 (PDT)
ZIP Codes
Area codes213/323, 310/424, 747/818
Official website Edit this at Wikidata

Los Angeles (s/ (About this soundlisten);[a] Spanish: Los Ángeles; Spanish for "The Angels"),[16] officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in California; the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City; and the third-most populous city in North America, after Mexico City and New York City. With an estimated population of nearly four million people,[11] Los Angeles is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. The city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood, the entertainment industry, and its sprawling metropolis.

Los Angeles lies in a basin in Southern California, adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, with mountains as high as 10,000 feet (3,000 m), and deserts. The city, which covers about 469 square miles (1,210 km2),[17] is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populous county in the United States. The Los Angeles metropolitan area (MSA) is the second-largest metropolitan area in the nation with a population of 13.1 million people.[18] The Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area (CSA) is the second-most populous CSA metropolitan area with a 2015 estimate of 18.7 million people.[19]

Historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542. The city was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and thus became part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.[20] The city was further expanded with the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, which delivers water from Eastern California.

Los Angeles has a diverse economy and hosts businesses in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. It also has the busiest container port in the entire Americas.[21] A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index. The Los Angeles metropolitan area also has a gross metropolitan product of $1.0 trillion[22] (as of 2017), making it the third-largest city by GDP in the world, after the Tokyo and New York City metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the 2028 Summer Olympics.


Pre-colonial history

The Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Tongva (Gabrieleños) and Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written "Yang-na" by the Spanish), meaning "poison oak place".[23][24]

Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.[25] Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769.[26]

Spanish rule

In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area.[27] On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles, 'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'.[28][b] The present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or (New Spain) settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry.[29] The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents.[30] Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles.[31]

Mexican rule

New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital.[32]

1847 to present

Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847.[33]

Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885.[34] Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output.[35]

By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000,[36] putting pressure on the city's water supply.[37] The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city.[38] Due to clauses in the city's charter that effectively prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent cities and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.[39][40][41]

Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones. The new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were prohibited. The proscriptions included barns, lumber yards, and any industrial land use employing machine-powered equipment. These laws were enforced against industrial properties after-the-fact. These prohibitions were in addition to existing activities that were already regulated as nuisances. These included explosives warehousing, gas works, oil-drilling, slaughterhouses, and tanneries. Los Angeles City Council also designated seven industrial zones within the city. However, between 1908 and 1915, Los Angeles City Council created various exceptions to the broad proscriptions that applied to these three residential zones, and as a consequence, some industrial uses emerged within them. There are two differences from the 1908 Residence District Ordinance and later zoning laws in the United States. First, the 1908 laws did not establish a comprehensive zoning map as the 1916 New York City Zoning Ordinance did. Second, the residential zones did not distinguish types of housing; it treated apartments, hotels, and detached-single-family housing equally.[42]

Hill Street, looking north from 6th Street, around 1913. Notable sites include Central Park (today's Pershing Square) (the trees, lower left), Hotel Portsmouth (lower right), and the Hill Street tunnel (at end of street).

In 1910, Hollywood merged into Los Angeles, with 10 movie companies already operating in the city at the time. By 1921, more than 80 percent of the world's film industry was concentrated in LA.[43] The money generated by the industry kept the city insulated from much of the economic loss suffered by the rest of the country during the Great Depression.[44] By 1930, the population surpassed one million.[45] In 1932, the city hosted the Summer Olympics.

During World War II, Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Calship built hundreds of Liberty Ships and Victory Ships on Terminal Island, and the Los Angeles area was the headquarters of six of the country's major aircraft manufacturers (Douglas Aircraft Company, Hughes Aircraft, Lockheed, North American Aviation, Northrop Corporation, and Vultee). During the war, more aircraft were produced in one year than in all the pre-war years since the Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903, combined. Manufacturing in Los Angeles skyrocketed, and as William S. Knudsen, of the National Defense Advisory Commission put it, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible."[46]

George Patton during a welcome home parade in Los Angeles, June 9, 1945

Following the end of World War II, Los Angeles grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the San Fernando Valley.[47] The expansion of the Interstate Highway System during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system, once the world's largest.

Previous to the 1950s, Los Angeles' name had multiple pronunciations, but the soft "G" pronunciation is universal today. Some early movies or video shows it pronounced with a hard "G" (s/).[48] Sam Yorty was one of the last public figures who still used the hard "G" pronunciation.[49]

The 1960s saw race relations boil over into the Watts riots of 1965, which resulted in 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries. In 1969, Los Angeles became the birthplace of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to SRI in Menlo Park.[50]

In 1973, Thomas Bradley was elected as the city's first African American mayor, serving for five terms until retiring in 1993. Other events in the city during the 1970s included the Symbionese Liberation Army's South Central standoff in 1974, the Hillside Stranglers murder cases in 1977–1978, Daryl Gates becoming Los Angeles Police Department's 49th-and as controversially outspoken as his predecessor Edward Davis-police chief in 1978 and also in 1978 the 50th Academy Awards ceremony at the city's Dorothy Chandler Pavilion and Jimmy Carter's first ever presidential visit and in 1979, the decade ending with the 50th anniversary of the Academy Awards (51st ever ceremony, also at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion), President Carter's second visit to the city and the City Council's and Bradley's respective passing and signing of the city's first homosexual rights bill.

In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous,[51] and the second Olympics to turn a profit until then–the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles.[52]

Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a Simi Valley jury of four Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers captured on videotape beating Rodney King, culminating in large-scale riots.[53][54]

In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths.[55] The century ended with the Rampart scandal, one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history.[56]

In 2002, voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city.[57]

Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games, making Los Angeles the third city to host the Olympics three times.[58][59]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Los Angeles
Alemannisch: Los Angeles
Ænglisc: Los Angeles
العربية: لوس أنجلوس
aragonés: Los Angeles
armãneashti: Los Angeles
asturianu: Los Angeles
Avañe'ẽ: Los Ángeles
Aymar aru: Los Angeles
azərbaycanca: Los-Anceles
تۆرکجه: لوس‌آنجلس
bamanankan: Los Angeles
Bân-lâm-gú: Los Angeles
башҡортса: Лос-Анджелес
беларуская: Лос-Анджэлес
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лос-Анджэлес
भोजपुरी: लॉस एंजिलिस
Bikol Central: Los Angeles
Bislama: Los Angeles
български: Лос Анджелис
Boarisch: Los Angeles
bosanski: Los Angeles
català: Los Angeles
Чӑвашла: Лос-Анджелес
Cebuano: Los Angeles
čeština: Los Angeles
Chi-Chewa: Los Angeles
Cymraeg: Los Angeles
davvisámegiella: Los Angeles
Deitsch: Los Angeles
Deutsch: Los Angeles
dolnoserbski: Los Angeles
डोटेली: लस एन्जलस
Ελληνικά: Λος Άντζελες
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Los Angeles
español: Los Ángeles
Esperanto: Los-Anĝeleso
estremeñu: Los Ángeles
euskara: Los Angeles
فارسی: لس آنجلس
føroyskt: Los Angeles
français: Los Angeles
furlan: Los Angeles
Gàidhlig: Los Angeles
galego: Os Ánxeles
ГӀалгӀай: Лос-Анджелес
贛語: 洛杉磯
Gĩkũyũ: Los Angeles
ગુજરાતી: લોસ એન્જેલસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Los Angeles
հայերեն: Լոս Անջելես
Արեւմտահայերէն: Լոս Անճելըս
hornjoserbsce: Los Angeles
hrvatski: Los Angeles
Ilokano: Los Angeles
Bahasa Indonesia: Los Angeles
interlingua: Los Angeles
Interlingue: Los Angeles
íslenska: Los Angeles
italiano: Los Angeles
עברית: לוס אנג'לס
къарачай-малкъар: Лос-Анджелес
ქართული: ლოს-ანჯელესი
қазақша: Лос Анжелес
kernowek: Los Angeles
Kirundi: Los Angeles
Kiswahili: Los Angeles
Kreyòl ayisyen: Los Angeles, Kalifòni
kurdî: Los Angeles
Кыргызча: Лос-Анжелес
кырык мары: Лос-Анджелес
Latina: Angelopolis
latviešu: Losandželosa
Lëtzebuergesch: Los Angeles
lietuvių: Los Andželas
Ligure: Los Angeles
Limburgs: Los Angeles
lingála: Los Angeles
lumbaart: Los Angeles
magyar: Los Angeles
मैथिली: लस एन्जलस
македонски: Лос Анџелес
Malagasy: Los Angeles
მარგალური: ლოს-ანჯელესი
مازِرونی: لس آنجلس
Bahasa Melayu: Los Angeles
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lŏk-săng-gĭ
Mirandés: Los Angeles
монгол: Лос-Анжелес
Dorerin Naoero: Los Angeles
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Los Angeles
Nederlands: Los Angeles
नेपाली: लस एन्जलस
नेपाल भाषा: लस एञ्जिलस
Napulitano: Los Angeles
нохчийн: Лос-Анджелес
Nordfriisk: Los Angeles
norsk nynorsk: Los Angeles
Novial: Los Angeles
occitan: Los Angeles
олык марий: Лос-Анджелес
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Los Anjeles
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਾਸ ਐਂਜਲਸ
Pälzisch: Los Angeles
پنجابی: لاس اینجلس
Papiamentu: Los Angeles
Patois: Las Anjiliiz
Picard: Los Angeles
Piemontèis: Los Angeles
Plattdüütsch: Los Angeles
polski: Los Angeles
português: Los Angeles
Qaraqalpaqsha: Los Andjeles
reo tahiti: Los Angeles
română: Los Angeles
romani čhib: Los Angeles
rumantsch: Los Angeles
Runa Simi: Los Angeles
русиньскый: Лос Анджелес
русский: Лос-Анджелес
саха тыла: Лос Андьелес
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱞᱚᱥ ᱮᱧᱡᱮᱞᱥ
संस्कृतम्: लास एंजलस
Sängö: Los Angeles
Seeltersk: Los Angeles
sicilianu: Los Angeles
Simple English: Los Angeles
slovenčina: Los Angeles
slovenščina: Los Angeles
ślůnski: Los Angeles
Soomaaliga: Los Angeles
Sranantongo: Los Angeles
српски / srpski: Лос Анђелес
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Los Angeles
svenska: Los Angeles
Taqbaylit: Los Angeles
tarandíne: Los Angeles
татарча/tatarça: Лос-Әнҗелес
тоҷикӣ: Лос Анҷелес
Tsetsêhestâhese: Los Angeles
Türkçe: Los Angeles
Türkmençe: Los-Anjeles
українська: Лос-Анджелес
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Los Anjélés
vèneto: Los Angeles
vepsän kel’: Los Andželes
Tiếng Việt: Los Angeles
Volapük: Los Angeles
文言: 洛杉磯
West-Vlams: Los Angeles
Winaray: Los Angeles
吴语: 洛杉矶
Yorùbá: Los Angeles
粵語: 洛杉磯
Zazaki: Los Angeles
žemaitėška: Los Andžels
中文: 洛杉矶