London

London
Heron TowerTower 4230 St Mary AxeLeadenhall BuildingWillis BuildingLloyds BuildingCanary Wharf20 Fenchurch StreetCity of LondonLondon UndergroundElizabeth TowerTrafalgar SquareLondon EyeTower BridgeRiver ThamesLondon montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.
About this image
Clockwise from top: City of London in the foreground with Canary Wharf in the far background, Trafalgar Square, London Eye, Tower Bridge and a London Underground roundel in front of
Interactive map showing administrative boundaries
London is located in England
London
London
Location within England
London is located in the United Kingdom
London
London
Location within the United Kingdom
London is located in Europe
London
London
Location within Europe
London is located in Earth
London
London
Location on Earth
Coordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W / 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W / 51.50722; -0.12750UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Postcode areas
Area codes
PoliceCity of London Police and Metropolitan Police
International airportsHeathrow (LHR)
City (LCY)
Outside Greater London:
Gatwick (LGW)
Stansted (STN)
Luton (LTN)
Southend (SEN)
HDI (2017)0.965[8]very high
GeoTLDlondon.gov.uk

London (n/ (About this soundlisten) LUN-dən) is the capital and largest city of both the United Kingdom and England.[9][10] Standing on the River Thames in southeastern England, 50 miles (80 km) upstream from its estuary with the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans.[11] The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains its medieval boundaries.[12][13][14][15][16][note 1] The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.[17][note 2][18]

London is often considered as the world's leading global city[19][20][21] and has been termed as the world's most powerful,[22] most desirable,[23] most influential,[24] most visited,[25] most expensive,[26][27] innovative,[28] sustainable,[29], most investment friendly,[30] most popular for work,[31] and the most vegetarian friendly[32] city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation.[33][34] London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance.[35] It is one of the largest financial centres[36] and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP.[note 3][37][38][39][40][41] It is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals[42] and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic.[43] It is the leading investment destination,[44][45][46][47] hosting more international retailers[48][49] and ultra high-net-worth individuals[50][51] than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.[52] In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games.[53]

London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.[54] Its estimated mid-2016 municipal population (corresponding to Greater London) was 8,787,892,[4] the most populous of any city in the European Union[55] and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population.[56] London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.[57] The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016.[note 4][3][58] London was the world’s most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925.[59]

London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement in Greenwich where the Royal Observatory, Greenwich defines the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and Greenwich Mean Time.[60] Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries, libraries and sporting events. These include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres.[61] The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world.

Toponymy

It is an ancient name, attested already in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form Londinium;[62] for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio ("in London").[63]

Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations. The earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136.[62] This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.[64]

Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin (usually Londinium), Old English (usually Lunden), and Welsh (usually Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from Common Brythonic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *[Londonjon] or something similar. This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English.[65]

The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon.[66] However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, and recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of an proto-Indo-European root *lendh- ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo- (used to form place-names). Peter Schrijver has specifically suggested, on these grounds, that the name originally meant 'place that floods (periodically, tidally)'.[67][65]

Until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since then it has also referred to the County of London and Greater London.[68] "London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN".[69]

Other Languages
Acèh: London
Адыгэбзэ: Лондон
адыгабзэ: Лондон
Afrikaans: Londen
Alemannisch: London
አማርኛ: ለንደን
Ænglisc: Lunden
Аҧсшәа: Лондан
العربية: لندن
aragonés: Londres
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܠܘܢܕܘܢ
armãneashti: Londra
arpetan: Londro
asturianu: Londres
Avañe'ẽ: Lóndyre
авар: Лондон
Aymar aru: London
azərbaycanca: London
تۆرکجه: لندن
bamanankan: London
বাংলা: লন্ডন
Bân-lâm-gú: Lûn-tun
Basa Banyumasan: London
башҡортса: Лондон
беларуская: Лондан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лёндан
भोजपुरी: लंदन
Bikol Central: Londres
Bislama: London
български: Лондон
Boarisch: London
བོད་ཡིག: ལོན་ཊོན།
bosanski: London
brezhoneg: Londrez
буряад: Лондон
català: Londres
Чӑвашла: Лондон
Cebuano: London
čeština: Londýn
Chavacano de Zamboanga: London
Chi-Chewa: London
chiShona: London
corsu: Londra
Cymraeg: Llundain
dansk: London
davvisámegiella: London
Deitsch: London
Deutsch: London
dolnoserbski: London
डोटेली: लण्डन
eesti: London
Ελληνικά: Λονδίνο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Lòndra
эрзянь: Лондон ош
español: Londres
Esperanto: Londono
estremeñu: Londri
euskara: Londres
eʋegbe: London
فارسی: لندن
Fiji Hindi: London
føroyskt: London
français: Londres
Frysk: Londen
Fulfulde: London
Gaeilge: Londain
Gaelg: Lunnin
Gagauz: London
Gàidhlig: Lunnainn
galego: Londres
ГӀалгӀай: Лондон
贛語: 倫敦
ગુજરાતી: લંડન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: London
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lùn-tûn
한국어: 런던
Hausa: Landan
Hawaiʻi: Lākana
հայերեն: Լոնդոն
हिन्दी: लंदन
hornjoserbsce: London
hrvatski: London
Ido: London
Igbo: London
Ilokano: Londres
Bahasa Indonesia: London
interlingua: London
Interlingue: London
Ирон: Лондон
isiZulu: ILondon
íslenska: London
italiano: Londra
עברית: לונדון
Basa Jawa: London
Kabɩyɛ: Lɔndrɩ
kalaallisut: London
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಲಂಡನ್
къарачай-малкъар: Лондон
ქართული: ლონდონი
kaszëbsczi: Londin
қазақша: Лондон
kernowek: Loundres
Kiswahili: London
коми: Лондон
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lonn
kurdî: London
Кыргызча: Лондон
кырык мары: Лондон
Ladino: Londra
лакку: Лондон
لۊری شومالی: لندن
Latina: Londinium
latviešu: Londona
Lëtzebuergesch: London
лезги: Лондон
lietuvių: Londonas
Ligure: Londra
Limburgs: Londe
lingála: Lóndɛlɛ
Lingua Franca Nova: London
Livvinkarjala: London
la .lojban.: london
lumbaart: Lundra
magyar: London
मैथिली: लण्डन
македонски: Лондон
Malagasy: London
മലയാളം: ലണ്ടൻ
Malti: Londra
Māori: Rānana
मराठी: लंडन
მარგალური: ლონდონი
مصرى: لندن
مازِرونی: لندن
Bahasa Melayu: London
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lùng-dŭng
Mirandés: Londres
монгол: Лондон
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လန်ဒန်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: London
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Lodoni
Nederlands: Londen
Nedersaksies: Londen
नेपाली: लण्डन
नेपाल भाषा: लन्दन
日本語: ロンドン
Napulitano: Londra
нохчийн: Лондон
Nordfriisk: London
Norfuk / Pitkern: London
norsk: London
norsk nynorsk: London
Nouormand: Londres
Novial: London
occitan: Londres
олык марий: Лондон
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଲଣ୍ଡନ
Oromoo: Landan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: London
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲੰਡਨ
پنجابی: لندن
Papiamentu: London
پښتو: لندن
Patois: Landan
Перем Коми: Лондон
Picard: Londe
Piemontèis: Londra
Tok Pisin: Landen
Plattdüütsch: London
polski: Londyn
Ποντιακά: Λονδίνο
português: Londres
Qaraqalpaqsha: London
qırımtatarca: London
Ripoarisch: London
română: Londra
Romani: London
rumantsch: Londra
Runa Simi: London
русиньскый: Лондон
русский: Лондон
саха тыла: Лондон
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱞᱚᱱᱰᱚᱱ
Gagana Samoa: Lonetona
संस्कृतम्: लन्डन्
sardu: Londra
Scots: Lunnon
Seeltersk: London
Sesotho: London
shqip: Londra
sicilianu: Londra
සිංහල: ලන්ඩන්
Simple English: London
سنڌي: لنڊن
slovenčina: Londýn
slovenščina: London
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Лондонъ
ślůnski: Lůndůn
Soomaaliga: London
کوردی: لەندەن
Sranantongo: London
српски / srpski: Лондон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: London
suomi: Lontoo
svenska: London
Tagalog: Londres
தமிழ்: இலண்டன்
Taqbaylit: London
tarandíne: Londre
татарча/tatarça: Лондон
తెలుగు: లండన్
tetun: Londres
тоҷикӣ: Лондон
Türkçe: Londra
Türkmençe: London
Twi: London
удмурт: Лондон
українська: Лондон
اردو: لندن
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: London
vèneto: Łondra
vepsän kel’: London
Tiếng Việt: Luân Đôn
Volapük: London
Võro: London
walon: Londe
文言: 倫敦
West-Vlams: Londn
Winaray: London
Wolof: Londar
吴语: 伦敦
ייִדיש: לאנדאן
Yorùbá: Lọndọnu
粵語: 倫敦
Zazaki: Londra
Zeêuws: Londen
žemaitėška: Londons
中文: 伦敦