Lithuania

Republic of Lithuania
Lietuvos Respublika  (Lithuanian)
Anthem: Tautiška giesmė
National Hymn
Locator map of Lithuania
Location of  Lithuania  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

Location of Lithuania in the World
Location of Lithuania in the World
Capital
and largest city
Vilnius
54°41′N 25°19′E / 54°41′N 25°19′E / 54.683; 25.317
Official languagesLithuanian
Ethnic groups (2015[1])
DemonymLithuanian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[2][3][4][5]
Dalia Grybauskaitė
Saulius Skvernelis
Viktoras Pranckietis
LegislatureSeimas
Independence from Russia / Germany (1918)
9 March 1009
• Coronation of Mindaugas
6 July 1253
2 February 1386
1 July 1569
24 October 1795
16 February 1918
15 June 1940
22 June 1941
July 1944
11 March 1990
• Independence recognized by the Soviet Union
6 September 1991
17 September 1991
• Admitted to NATO
29 March 2004
Area
• Total
65,300 km2 (25,200 sq mi) (121st)
• Water (%)
1.35
Population
• 2017 estimate
2,800,667[6] (137th)
• Density
43/km2 (111.4/sq mi) (173rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$96.261 billion[7]
• Per capita
$34,596[7] (41st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$54.352 billion
• Per capita
$19,534[8] (49th)
Gini (2015)Negative increase 37.9[9]
medium
HDI (2015)Increase 0.848[10]
very high · 37th
CurrencyEuro (€) (EUR)
Time zoneEET (UTC+2)
• Summer (DST)
EEST (UTC+3)
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Drives on theright
Calling code+370
ISO 3166 codeLT
Internet TLD.lta
  1. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Lithuania (ə/ (About this sound listen);[11] Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2017, and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Other major cities are Kaunas and Klaipėda. Lithuanians are a Baltic people, the official language, Lithuanian, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family.

For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, the King of Lithuania, and the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania, was created on 6 July 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe; present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were the territories of the Grand Duchy. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory.

As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. In the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and then by Nazi Germany. As World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Baltic state[12] to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania after 50 years of Soviet occupation.

Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, a full member of the eurozone, Schengen Agreement, OECD and NATO. It is also a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, and part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries. The United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a "very high human development" country.

Etymology

Lithuania's name in writing 1009

The first known record of the name of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuva) is in a 9 March 1009 story of Saint Bruno recorded in the Quedlinburg Chronicle (Latin: Annales Quedlinburgenses).[13] The Chronicle recorded a Latinized form of the name Lietuva: Litua[14] (pronounced [litua]). Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions.

There have been several attempts to associate Lietuva with Celtic toponyms, and with Latin or Italian words, but these attempts all lack strong linguistic support. According to a widespread popular belief, the word Lietuva (Lithuania) originated from the Lithuanian words lyti (to rain) and lietus (rain).[15][16] However, there is no serious scientific support for this theory. Since the word Lietuva has a suffix (-uva), the original word should have no suffix. A likely candidate is Lietā. Because many Baltic ethnonyms originated from hydronyms, linguists have searched for its origin among local hydronyms. Usually such names evolved through the following process: hydronym → toponym → ethnonym.[17]

A small river not far from Kernavė, the core area of the early Lithuanian state and a possible first capital of the eventual Grand Duchy of Lithuania, is usually credited as the source of the name. This river's original name is Lietava.[17] As time passed, the suffix -ava could have changed into -uva, as the two are from the same suffix branch. The river flows in the lowlands and easily spills over its banks, therefore the traditional Lithuanian form liet- could be directly translated as lietis (to spill), of the root derived from the Proto-Indo-European *leyǝ-.[18] It is believed that Rimgaudas (father of Mindaugas) ruled the area of Kernavė.[19] However, the river is very small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation. On the other hand, such a naming is not unprecedented in world history.[20]

While the word's etymology continues to be debated, scientists agree that the primary origins of the ethnonym were the Lithuanian forms *Lētuvā/Lietuva, which were then used by different languages, including Slavic. It is very unlikely for the name to have derived from a Slavic language, since the Slavic -i- (и) could never be transliterated into the Lithuanian diphthong -ie-.[20]

Among other etymologies of the name of Lithuania there is Artūras Dubonis' hypothesis,[21] that Lietuva relates to the word *leičiai (plural of leitis, a social group in the early Grand Duchy of Lithuania). From the middle of the 13th century, leičiai were a distinct social group of the Lithuanian society subordinate to the Lithuanian ruler or the state itself. They were living in the Vilnius and Trakai Voivodeships manors. Possibly, already in the 14th century part of them became bajorai. Another meaning of leičiai is used in the 14th – 16th centuries historical sources as an ethnonym for Lithuanians. It is believed that occasionally all Lithuanians were called using it (except for Samogitians). The word leiši (plural of leitis) is an ethnonym for the Lithuanians which is still used, usually poetically or in historical contexts, in the Latvian language, which is closely related to Lithuanian.[22][23]

Other Languages
Acèh: Lithuania
Адыгэбзэ: Литоу
адыгабзэ: Литуание
Afrikaans: Litaue
Akan: Lituania
Alemannisch: Litauen
አማርኛ: ሊትዌኒያ
Ænglisc: Liþþuania
Аҧсшәа: Литва
العربية: ليتوانيا
aragonés: Lituania
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܠܬܘܢܝܐ
arpetan: Lituanie
asturianu: Lituania
Avañe'ẽ: Lituáña
авар: Литва
Aymar aru: Lituaña
azərbaycanca: Litva
تۆرکجه: لیتوانی
Bân-lâm-gú: Lietuva
башҡортса: Литва
беларуская: Літва
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Летува
भोजपुरी: लिथुआनिया
Bikol Central: Lituanya
Bislama: Litwania
български: Литва
Boarisch: Litaun
bosanski: Litvanija
brezhoneg: Lituania
буряад: Литва
català: Lituània
Чӑвашла: Литва
Cebuano: Litwanya
čeština: Litva
Chamoru: Lituania
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Lituania
Chi-Chewa: Lithuania
chiShona: Lithuania
chiTumbuka: Lithuania
corsu: Lituania
Cymraeg: Lithwania
dansk: Litauen
davvisámegiella: Lietuva
Deitsch: Litaun
Deutsch: Litauen
ދިވެހިބަސް: ލިތުއޭނިއާ
dolnoserbski: Litawska
eesti: Leedu
Ελληνικά: Λιθουανία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Lituàgna
español: Lituania
Esperanto: Litovio
estremeñu: Lituania
euskara: Lituania
eʋegbe: Lithuania
فارسی: لیتوانی
Fiji Hindi: Lithuania
føroyskt: Litava
français: Lituanie
Frysk: Litouwen
Fulfulde: Lituwaniya
furlan: Lituanie
Gaeilge: An Liotuáin
Gaelg: Yn Litaan
Gagauz: Litvaniya
Gàidhlig: Liotuàinia
galego: Lituania
Gĩkũyũ: Rithuĩnia
ગુજરાતી: લિથુઆનિયા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌻𐌹𐍄𐍅𐌰𐌽𐌾𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: लिथुआनिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lithuania
хальмг: Литдин Орн
한국어: 리투아니아
Hausa: Lithuania
Hawaiʻi: Lituania
Հայերեն: Լիտվա
हिन्दी: लिथुआनिया
hornjoserbsce: Litawska
hrvatski: Litva
Igbo: Lithunia
Ilokano: Lituania
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: লিথুয়ানিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Lituania
interlingua: Lituania
Interlingue: Lituania
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓕᐋᑐᕙ
Ирон: Литва
isiZulu: ILithuwaniya
íslenska: Litháen
italiano: Lituania
עברית: ליטא
Basa Jawa: Litowen
kalaallisut: Litaueni
Kapampangan: Lituania
къарачай-малкъар: Литва
ქართული: ლიტვა
kaszëbsczi: Lëtwa
қазақша: Литва
kernowek: Lithouani
Kinyarwanda: Lituwaniya
Kirundi: Lituania
Kiswahili: Lituanya
коми: Литва
Kongo: Lietuva
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lityani
kurdî: Lîtvanya
Кыргызча: Литва
кырык мары: Литва
Ladino: Lituania
лезги: Литва
latgaļu: Lītova
Latina: Lituania
latviešu: Lietuva
Lëtzebuergesch: Litauen
lietuvių: Lietuva
Ligure: Lituannia
Limburgs: Litouwe
lingála: Litwani
Livvinkarjala: Litvu
la .lojban.: lietuvas
Luganda: Lithueenia
lumbaart: Lituania
magyar: Litvánia
македонски: Литванија
Malagasy: Litoania
മലയാളം: ലിത്വാനിയ
Malti: Litwanja
Māori: Rituānia
მარგალური: ლიტვა
مازِرونی: لیتوانی
Bahasa Melayu: Lithuania
Baso Minangkabau: Lituania
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lithuania
мокшень: Литва
монгол: Литва
Dorerin Naoero: Rituainiya
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Lituani
Nederlands: Litouwen
Nedersaksies: Litouwen
नेपाली: लिथुआनिया
नेपाल भाषा: लिथुआनिया
日本語: リトアニア
Napulitano: Lituania
нохчийн: Литва
Nordfriisk: Litauen
Norfuk / Pitkern: Lithyuanya
norsk: Litauen
norsk nynorsk: Litauen
Nouormand: Lithuanie
Novial: Lituania
occitan: Lituània
олык марий: Литва
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଲିଥୁଆନିଆ
Oromoo: Lituheeniyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Litva
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਿਥੁਆਨੀਆ
Pangasinan: Lituania
پنجابی: لیتھوینیا
Papiamentu: Lituania
Patois: Lituyenia
Перем Коми: Летува
Picard: Lituanie
Piemontèis: Lituania
Tok Pisin: Lituwenia
Plattdüütsch: Litauen
polski: Litwa
Ποντιακά: Λιθουανία
português: Lituânia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Litva
qırımtatarca: Litvaniya
reo tahiti: Rituania
română: Lituania
Romani: Lituaniya
rumantsch: Lituania
Runa Simi: Lituwa
русиньскый: Літва
русский: Литва
саха тыла: Литва
Gagana Samoa: Lufiana
संस्कृतम्: लेतुवा
Sängö: Lituanïi
sardu: Lituània
Scots: Lithuanie
Seeltersk: Litauen
Sesotho: Lituania
shqip: Lituania
sicilianu: Lituania
Simple English: Lithuania
SiSwati: Lithuwani
slovenčina: Litva
slovenščina: Litva
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Литъва
ślůnski: Litwa
Soomaaliga: Lithuaniya
کوردی: لیتوانیا
Sranantongo: Lituwaniyakondre
српски / srpski: Литванија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Litvanija
Basa Sunda: Lituania
suomi: Liettua
svenska: Litauen
Tagalog: Lithuania
Taqbaylit: Litwanya
tarandíne: Lituanie
татарча/tatarça: Литва
తెలుగు: లిథువేనియా
tetun: Lituánia
тоҷикӣ: Литва
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎵᏗᏪᏂᎠ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Lithuania
Tshivenda: Lituania
Türkçe: Litvanya
Türkmençe: Litwa
удмурт: Литва
українська: Литва
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: لىتۋا
vèneto: Łituania
vepsän kel’: Litvanma
Tiếng Việt: Litva
Volapük: Lietuvän
Võro: Leedu
walon: Litwaneye
文言: 立陶宛
West-Vlams: Litouwn
Winaray: Lituania
Wolof: Lituwaani
吴语: 立陶宛
Xitsonga: Lithuania
ייִדיש: ליטע
Yorùbá: Lituéníà
粵語: 立陶宛
Zazaki: Litwanya
Zeêuws: Litouwen
žemaitėška: Lietova
中文: 立陶宛
डोटेली: लिथुआनिया
Kabɩyɛ: Lituyanii
Lingua Franca Nova: Lietuva