Research areas for lithium-ion batteries include life extension, energy density, safety, cost reduction, and charging speed, among others. Research has been under way in the area of non-flammable electrolytes as a pathway to increased safety based on the flammability and volatility of the organic solvents used in the typical electrolyte. Strategies include aqueous lithium-ion batteries, ceramic solid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes, ionic liquids, and heavily fluorinated systems.
A cell is a basic electrochemical unit that contains the electrodes, separator, and electrolyte.
A battery or battery pack is a collection of cells or cell assemblies, with housing, electrical connections, and possibly electronics for control and protection.
Anode and cathode electrodes
For rechargeable cells, the term anode (or negative electrode) designates the electrode where oxidation is taking place during the discharge cycle; the other electrode is the cathode (or positive electrode). For lithium-ion cells the cathode is the lithium-based one .