Lithium-ion battery

Lithium-ion battery
Nokia Battery.jpg
An example of a Nokia Li-ion battery
(used in various mobile phones)
Specific energy100–265 W·h/kg[1][2](0.36–0.875 MJ/kg)
Energy density250–693 W·h/L[3][4](0.90–2.43 MJ/L)
Specific power~250-~340 W/kg[1]
Charge/discharge efficiency80–90%[5]
Energy/consumer-price3.6 W·h/US$[6]
Self-discharge rate0.35% to 2.5% per month depending on state of charge[7]
Cycle durability400–1200 cycles[8]
Nominal cell voltage3.6 / 3.7 / 3.8/ 3.85 V, LiFePO4 3.2 V

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as one electrode material, compared to the metallic lithium used in a non-rechargeable lithium battery.

Lithium-ion batteries are common rechargeable batteries for portable electronics, with a high energy density, no memory effect (other than LFP cells)[9] and low self-discharge. LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, battery electric vehicle and aerospace applications.[10]

Chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics vary across LIB types. Handheld electronics mostly use LIBs based on lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO
2
), which offers high energy density but presents safety risks,[11] especially when damaged. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO
4
), lithium ion manganese oxide battery (LiMn
2
O
4
, Li
2
MnO
3
, or LMO), and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO
2
or NMC) offer lower energy density but longer lives and less likelihood of fire or explosion. Such batteries are widely used for electric tools, medical equipment, and other roles. NMC in particular is a leading contender for automotive applications. Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNiCoAlO
2
or NCA) and lithium titanate (Li
4
Ti
5
O
12
or LTO) are specialty designs aimed at particular niche roles. The newer lithium–sulfur batteries promise the higher performance-to-weight ratio.

Lithium-ion batteries can be a safety hazard since they contain a flammable electrolyte and may become pressurized if they beome damaged. A battery cell charged too quickly could cause a short circuit, leading to explosions and fires.[12] Because of these risks, testing standards are more stringent than those for acid-electrolyte batteries, requiring both a broader range of test conditions and additional battery-specific tests, and there are shipping limitations imposed by safety regulators.[13][14][15] There have been battery-related recalls by some companies, including the 2016 Samsung Galaxy Note 7 recall for battery fires.[16][17]

Another problem can occur if a lithium-ion battery is damaged or crushed, or if a battery without overcharge protection is subjected to a higher electrical load than it can safely handle. Additionally, an external short circuit can trigger the batteries to explode.[18]

Research areas for lithium-ion batteries include life extension, energy density, safety, cost reduction, and charging speed,[19] among others. Research has also been under way for aqueous lithium-ion batteries, which have demonstrated fewer potential safety hazards due to their use of non-flammable electrolytes.[20]

Terminology

Battery versus cell

A cell is a basic electrochemical unit that contains the electrodes, separator, and electrolyte.[15][21]

A battery or battery pack is a collection of cells or cell assemblies, with housing, electrical connections, and possibly electronics for control and protection.[22][23]

Anode and cathode electrodes

For rechargeable cells, the term cathode designates the electrode where reduction is taking place during the discharge cycle. For lithium-ion cells the positive electrode ("cathode") is the lithium-based one.

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Baterai ion litium
Bahasa Melayu: Bateri litium-ion
Nederlands: Lithium-ion-accu
Simple English: Lithium-ion battery
slovenščina: Litij-ionska baterija
Türkçe: Lityum iyon pil
Tiếng Việt: Pin Li-ion