An example of a
(used in various mobile phones)
|Self-discharge rate||0.35% to 2.5% per month depending on state of charge|
|Cycle durability||400–1200 |
|Nominal cell voltage||3.6 / 3.7 / 3.8/ 3.85 |
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of
Lithium-ion batteries are common rechargeable batteries for
Chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics vary across LIB types. Handheld electronics mostly use LIBs based on
2), which offers high energy density but presents safety risks, especially when damaged.
2 or NMC) offer lower energy density but longer lives and less likelihood of fire or explosion. Such batteries are widely used for electric tools, medical equipment, and other roles. NMC in particular is a leading contender for automotive applications. Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNiCoAlO
2 or NCA) and
12 or LTO) are specialty designs aimed at particular niche roles. The newer
Lithium-ion batteries can be a safety hazard since they contain a flammable electrolyte and may become pressurized if they beome damaged. A battery cell charged too quickly could cause a short circuit, leading to explosions and fires. Because of these risks, testing standards are more stringent than those for acid-electrolyte batteries, requiring both a broader range of test conditions and additional battery-specific tests, and there are shipping limitations imposed by safety regulators. There have been battery-related recalls by some companies, including the 2016
Another problem can occur if a lithium-ion battery is damaged or crushed, or if a battery without overcharge protection is subjected to a higher electrical load than it can safely handle. Additionally, an external short circuit can trigger the batteries to explode.
Research areas for lithium-ion batteries include life extension, energy density, safety, cost reduction, and charging speed, among others. Research has also been under way for
For rechargeable cells, the term cathode designates the electrode where