List of glossing abbreviations

This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.

Note the following:

  • Abbreviations beginning with N- (a common prefix for non-) or ending with -Z (a common suffix for -izer) may not be listed separately. For example, NPST non-past and TRZ transitivizer are not listed below, as they are composable from N- non- + PST past and TR transitive + -Z -izer.
  • Abbreviations are generally written in all caps or—apart from the terms A, S, O and P—in small caps, to distinguish them from lexical words.
GlossMeaning
direction of transitivity or possession in polypersonal agreement
(2›3 may mean 2 acts on 3; 1sg›sg may mean a 1sg possessor and a singular possessum)
0zero (null), covert form
(such as gender in a language where the word does not show it)
1first person
2second person
3third person
Aagent-like argument of canonical transitive verb
ABabstract
ABEabessive case (AKA caritive case or privative case: 'without')
ABLablative case ('from')
ABSabsolutive case
ACCaccusative case
ACCOMaccompanier
ACTactive voice, actor role (in role and reference grammar)
ADJadjective
ADEadessive case ('at'; more specific than LOC)
ADMadmonitive mood (warning)
ADVadverb(ial), adverbial case
AFFaffirmative
AG, AGTagentive case (cf ACT)
AGRagreement
ALLallative case ('to')
AL, ALLOCallocutive agreement
ALIENalienable possession
ANanimate gender (cf R)
ANDandative ('going towards', cf venitive)
ANTanterior tense (used for PRF in some traditions)
ANTEantessive case ('before')
ANTICanticausative
ANTIP, APantipassive voice
AORaorist (= PFV or PST.PFV)
APPapposition
APL, APPLapplicative voice
APPRapprehensive mood
APRXapproximative
ARTarticle
ASPaspect
ASSassociative case (= COM), assumptive mood, assertive mood
ATagent trigger (= AV agent voice)
ATTattenuative
ATTRattributive
AUDauditory evidential
AUGaugmentative
AUXauxiliary verb
Bbenefactive (when it is a core argument)
BE'be' verb (a conflation of EXIST and COP)
BENbenefactive case ('for')
Ccommon gender; complementizer
CAP(cap)ability, modal case
CAU, CAUScausative
CENTcentric case
CFcounterfactual conditional
CIRCcircumfix
CITcitation form
CL, CLFclassifier
CMPDcompound
CNJconjunction (= CONJ)
CNSQconsequential mood
CNTRcontrastive
COLcollective number
COMcomitative case ('together with')
COMPcomparative; complementizer
COMPL, CPLcompletive aspect
CONconcrete
CONCconcessive
CONDconditional mood
CONJconjunction (= CNJ)
CONNconnective particle
CONT, CTNcontinuous aspect; continuative aspect
COPcopula
CORcoreference
CRAScrastinal tense ('tomorrow')
CRScurrent relevance marker (as in the perfect)
CVBconverb
Dcore dative case
DATdative case
DEdifferent event, change of event (cf DS)
DEC, DECLdeclarative mood
DEFdefinite
DEI, DEIXdeixis, deictic
DELdelayed imperative (a command to do s.t. later)
DELdelative case ('off of'), deliberative mood
DEMdemonstrative
DEOdeontic mood
DEPdependent (as in DEP.FUT)
DERderivation, derivational
DES, DESIdesiderative mood
DESTdestinative aspect
DETdeterminer
DETRdetransitive
DHmotion downhill, seaward (cf DR)
DIMdiminutive
DIRdirect evidential (= EXP); directional (= LAT); direct case
DISJdisjunction
DISTdistal demonstrative
DISTRdistributive case
DITRditransitive
DLMdelimited
DMdiscourse marker
DOdirect object
DRmotion downriver (cf DH)
DSdifferent-subject (change of subject) marker (cf DE)
DUdual number
DUBdubitative mood
DURdurative aspect, continuous aspect
DY, DYADdyadic
DYNdynamic aspect
Eepenthetic morpheme
-E(used to form various -essive cases)
ELAelative case ('out of')
EMPemphatic
EPISepistemic mood or modality
ERGergative case
ESSessive case
EV, EVIDevidential
EVITevitative case (= aversive case)
EX, EXCLexclusive person
EXCLAMexclamative
EX.DURexcessive duration
EXESSexessive case
EXHexhortative
EXISTexistential ('there is')
EXOexocentric case
EXP, EXPERexperiential, eyewitness, = direct evidential
EXPLexpletive (dummy / meaningless form)
F, FEMfeminine gender
FACTfactive evidential
FAMfamiliar register (as the T–V distinction)
FINfinite verb
FOCfocus
FORMformal register (as the T–V distinction)
FPfinal particle (joshi)
FR, FREQfrequentative aspect
FMRformer, deceased
FUTfuture tense
Ggender (G4 = the 4th gender)
GENgenitive case
GERgerund
GNOgnomic (generic) aspect
GTgoal trigger (Austronesian; = GV goal voice)
HABhabitual aspect
HBLhumble register
HESThesternal tense ('yesterday')
HISThistoric(al), as in historical present or past historic tense
HODhodiernal tense ('today')
HONhonorific
HORThortative
HSYhearsay, reported evidential
HUMhuman, anthropic gender (cf. HBL; R)
HYPhypothetical mood
Iinflected
IDidentical (~ NID)
IDENTIFidentifiable
IDEOideophone (≈ MIM)
IGNORignorative
ILLillative case ('into')
IMMimmediate, as in immediate imperative mood, near future tense
IMPimperative mood
IMPERFimperfect (= PST.IPFV)
IMPR, IMPRECimprecative mood
IMPRSimpersonal verb
IN, INCLinclusive person
INALinalienable possession
INANinanimate gender
INCH, INCHO, INCEPinchoative aspect, inceptive aspect
INDindicative mood
INDF, NDEFindefinite
INEinessive case ('in')
INFinfinitive
INFER, INFRinferential mood
INELinelative case ('from within')
INS, INSTRinstrumental case
INTintensifier; interrogative (= Q)
INTENintentional
INTR, NTRintransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument)
INVinverse
IOindirect object
IPFVimperfective aspect (= NPFV)
IRRirrealis mood
ISindirect speech
ITERiterative aspect
JUSjussive mood
-L(used to form various -lative cases)
L2second language (code-switching)
LATlative case (= MVMT, direction)
LDlocative case + directional
LKlinking element, interfix
LOClocative case (includes essive case)
LOGlogophoric
M, MASCmasculine gender
MANmanner
MIDmiddle voice
MIMmimetic (≈ IDEO)
MIR(ad)mirative
MLT, MLTPmultiplicative case
MODmood, modal, modal case
MOMsingle action verb (not iterative)
MVTmovement
N, NEUTneuter gender
N-non- (e.g. NSG non-singular, NPST non-past, NF non-feminine)
NEGnegation, negative
NFnon-finite (nonfinite verb, non-finite clause) or non-feminine
NHnon-human
NMZ, NZ, NOMInominalizer/nominalization
NOMnominative case
NSnon-subject (see oblique case)
NTR, INTRintransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument)
NUMnumeral
Opatient-like argument (object) of canonical transitive verb (= P)
OBJ, OBobject; objective case
OBLoblique case
OBVobviative
OPToptative mood
ORDordinal numeral
Ppatient-like argument of canonical transitive verb (= O)
Ppre-, post- (P.HOD prehodiernal)
PARTparticiple (= PTCP,PCP); particle (= PTCL); partitive case (= PTV)
PAS, PASSpassive voice
PATpatientive (= UND)
PA, PAUpaucal number
PEGpegative case (a special case for the giver)
PERperlative case ('per', using)
PERF, PRFperfect (= RET)
PERSpersonal
PFVperfective aspect
PLplural
PLU, PLURpluractional
PMphrase marker, predicate marker
PN, PROpronoun
POprimary object
POLpolite register
POS, POSSpossessive marker
POSTpostposition, postpositional case
POSTEpostessive case ('after')
POSTELpostelative case
POTpotential mood
PPpast / passive participle
PPFVpast perfective
PPPpast passive participle
PRproper noun
PRECprecative mood (requests)
PREDpredicate, predicative
PREPpreposition, prepositional case
PRESPpresent participle
PRET, PRTpreterite (= PFV.PST)
PRF, PERFperfect (= RET)
PRIVprivative case
PRS, PRESpresent tense
PROBprobability
PROGprogressive aspect
PROHprohibitive mood ('don't!')
PROLprolative case (= VIA)
PROPpropositive mood
PROSprosecutive case ('across', 'along')
PROSP, PRSPprospective aspect
PROTprotasis
PROXproximal demonstrative; proximate
PSTpast tense
PTpatient trigger
PTCL, PTCparticle
PTCP, PCPparticiple
PTVpartitive case ('some of')
PURPpurposive case
Qquestion word or particle (= INT)
QUOTquotative (quotative case or quotative mood)
Rrational gender (thinking beings)
REALrealis mood
RECrecent past tense
RECPreciprocal voice
REF, RFRreferential
REFLreflexive (reflexive pronoun, reflexive voice)
RELrelative(izer)
REMremote past tense
REPreported evidential (= HSY); repetitive (cf ITER)
RESresultative; resumptive
RETRetrospective (synonym for 'perfect' in some traditions)
ROOTroot
Ssingle argument of canonical intransitive verb (cf CIT)
SBJ, SUBsubject
SBJV, SJVsubjunctive mood
SEsame event (cf SS)
SEMsemelfactive aspect ('once')
SENSsensory evidential mood (= VIS+AUD)
SEQsequential
SGsingular (but 1.SG = 1s, 3MASC.SG = 3ms)
SGVsingulative number
SIMsimultaneous aspect; similative
SPECspecifier; speculative mood
SSsame-subject marker (cf SE)
STAT, STVstative aspect, stative verb
STEMstem
SUB, SUsubject
SUBR, SUBORD, SBRD, SRsubordinator
SUBEsubessive case ('under')
SUBLsublative case ('onto', 'down onto')
SUCsuccessive ('then')
SUP(L)superlative (SUPL); supine; supplicative
SUPEsuperessive case ('on')
-Ttrigger (used for AT, PT)
TAMtense, aspect, or mood
TELtelic aspect (cf PFV)
TEMPtemporal case
TERMterminative case
TNStense
TOPtopic
TR, TRANStransitive verb, transitive case (rare)
TRANSLtranslative case (becoming)
TRItrial number
TRNtrans-numeral (neither SG nor PL)
TVFtruth-value focus
Uuninflected
UHmotion uphill, inland (cf UR)
UNDundergoer role (cf PAT)
URmotion upriver (cf UH)
USITusitative, for usual, customary or typical events
V, VBverb or verbal
VBZverbalizer
VDverb, ditransitive
VENvenitive (coming towards; cf andative)
VERveridical, veridical mood (a certain conditional)
VIAvialis case
VISvisible, visual
VIverb, intransitive
VNverbal noun
VOCvocative case
VOLvolitive mood
VTverb, transitive
WH.Qwh- question
-Z-(al)izer (e.g. TRZ transitivizer)
ZOzoic gender (animals)
  • references

References

  • Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition.
  • Leipzig Glossing Rules
  • Payne, Thomas E. 1997. Describing Morphosyntax.
  • Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca. 1994. The Evolution of Grammar.
  • Blake, Barry J. (2001) [1994]. Case (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 195–206.
  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra. 2004. Evidentiality.
  • Helasvuo, Marja-Liisa. Argument splits in Finnish grammar and discourse.
  • Bernd Heine, Tania Kuteva. 2006. The changing languages of Europe.
  • Paul Kroeber. 1999. The Salish language family: reconstructing syntax.
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