Liquid hydrogen

Liquid hydrogen
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Names
IUPAC name
Liquid hydrogen
Other names
Hydrogen (cryogenic liquid); hydrogen, refrigerated liquid; LH2, para-hydrogen
Identifiers
3D model ( JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
KEGG
PubChem CID
RTECS number MW8900000
UNII
UN number 1966
Properties
H2
Molar mass 2.02 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 70.85 g/L (4.423 lb/cu ft) [1]
Melting point −259.14 °C (14.01 K; −434.45 °F) [2]
Boiling point −252.87 °C (20.28 K; −423.17 °F) [2]
Hazards
Highly flammable (F+)
NFPA 704
Flammability code 4: Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Flash point below 23 °C (73 °F). E.g., propane Health code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chloride Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazard CRYO: Cryogenic.NFPA 704 four-colored diamond
4
0
0
571 °C (1,060 °F; 844 K) [2]
Explosive limits LEL 4.0%; UEL 74.2% (in air) [2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. Hydrogen is found naturally in the molecular H2 form.

To exist as a liquid, H2 must be cooled below hydrogen's critical point of 33 K. However, for hydrogen to be in a fully liquid state without boiling at atmospheric pressure, it needs to be cooled to 20.28 K [3] (−423.17 °F/−252.87 °C). [4] [5] One common method of obtaining liquid hydrogen involves a compressor resembling a jet engine in both appearance and principle. Liquid hydrogen is typically used as a concentrated form of hydrogen storage. As in any gas, storing it as liquid takes less space than storing it as a gas at normal temperature and pressure. However, the liquid density is very low compared to other common fuels. Once liquefied, it can be maintained as a liquid in pressurized and thermally insulated containers.

There are two spin isomers of hydrogen; liquid hydrogen consists of 99.79% parahydrogen and 0.21% orthohydrogen. [6]

History

In 1885 Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski published hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K; critical pressure, 13.3 atmospheres; and boiling point, 23 K.

Hydrogen was liquefied by James Dewar in 1898 by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask. The first synthesis of the stable isomer form of liquid hydrogen, parahydrogen, was achieved by Paul Harteck and Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer in 1929.

Other Languages
беларуская: Вадкі вадарод
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вадкі вадарод
Ελληνικά: Υγρό υδρογόνο
한국어: 액체수소
Bahasa Indonesia: Hidrogen cair
日本語: 液体水素
română: Hidrogen lichid
српски / srpski: Tečni vodonik
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tečni vodonik
suomi: Nestevety
Türkçe: Sıvı hidrojen
українська: Рідкий водень
Tiếng Việt: Hydro lỏng
中文: 液氢