Franz Schubert (Franz Eybl, 1827
Beethoven (Joseph Willibrord Mähler, 1815

The lied (t/, plural lieder ər/ (Collins English Dictionary n.d.; Random House Unabridged Dictionary 1997; American Heritage Dictionary 2018); German pronunciation: [liːt], plural [ˈliːdɐ], German for "song") is a term in the German vernacular to describe setting poetry to classical music to create a piece of polyphonic music (Böker-Heil, et al. 2011). The term is used for songs from the late fourteenth or early fifteenth centuries or even to refer to Minnesang from as early as the 12th and 13th centuries (Encyclopædia Britannica 1998). It later came especially to refer to settings of Romantic poetry during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and into the early twentieth century. Examples include settings by Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Hugo Wolf or Richard Strauss. Among English speakers, however, "lied" is often used interchangeably with "art song" to encompass works that the tradition has inspired in other languages. The poems that have been made into lieder often center on pastoral themes or themes of romantic love (Anon. 2014).


Typically, lieder are arranged for a single singer and piano, lieder with orchestral accompaniment being a later development. Some of the most famous examples of lieder are Schubert's "Der Tod und das Mädchen" ("Death and the Maiden"), "Gretchen am Spinnrade", and "Der Doppelgänger". Sometimes lieder are composed in a song cycle (German Liederzyklus or Liederkreis), a series of songs (generally three or more) tied by a single narrative or theme, such as Schubert's Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise, or Robert Schumann's Frauenliebe und -leben and Dichterliebe. Schubert and Schumann are most closely associated with this genre, mainly developed in the Romantic era (Deaville 2004, 143; Thyme 2005, 90).

Other Languages
asturianu: Lied
brezhoneg: Lied
català: Lied
dansk: Lied
Deutsch: Kunstlied
eesti: Lied
Ελληνικά: Ληντ
español: Lied
Esperanto: Lied
euskara: Lied
français: Lied
galego: Lied
한국어: 가곡
italiano: Lied
עברית: ליד
Lëtzebuergesch: Lied
македонски: Лид
Malti: Lied
Bahasa Melayu: Lied
日本語: 歌曲
norsk: Lied
norsk nynorsk: Lied
português: Lied
română: Lied
русский: Lied (жанр)
Simple English: Lied
slovenščina: Samospev
suomi: Lied
Türkçe: Lied
Tiếng Việt: Lied
中文: 藝術歌曲