A European map of West Africa and the
, 1736. It has the archaic mapping designation of
Pepper Coast, also known as the Grain Coast, has been inhabited by indigenous peoples of Africa at least as far back as the 12th century.
Mende-speaking people expanded westward from the
Sudan, forcing many smaller ethnic groups southward toward the Atlantic Ocean. The Dei,
Kissi were some of the earliest documented peoples in the area.
This influx of these groups was compounded by the decline of the Western Sudanic
Mali Empire in 1375 and the
Songhai Empire in 1591. Liberia was a part of the
Kingdom of Koya from 1450-1898. As inland regions underwent
desertification, inhabitants moved to the wetter coast. These new inhabitants brought skills such as cotton
sorghum cultivation, and social and political institutions from the Mali and Songhai empires.
 Shortly after the
Mane conquered the region, the
Vai people of the former Mali Empire immigrated into the
Grand Cape Mount County region. The ethnic Kru opposed the influx of Vai, forming an alliance with the Mane to stop further influx of Vai.
People along the coast built
canoes and traded with other West Africans from
Cap-Vert to the
Gold Coast. Arab traders entered the region from the north, and a long-established slave trade took captives to north and east Africa.
Between 1461 and the late 17th century,
British traders had contacts and trading posts in the region. The Portuguese named the area Costa da Pimenta ("Pepper Coast") but it later came to be known as the
Grain Coast, due to the abundance of
melegueta pepper grains. European traders would barter commodities and goods with local people.
In the United States, there was a movement to resettle free-born
blacks and freed slaves who faced racial discrimination in the form of political disenfranchisement, and the denial of civil, religious and social privileges in the United States.
 Most whites and later a small cadre of black nationalists believed that blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the U.S.
American Colonization Society was founded in 1816 in Washington, DC for this purpose, by a group of prominent politicians and slaveholders. But its membership grew to include mostly people who supported abolition of slavery. Slaveholders wanted to get
free people of color out of the South, where they were thought to threaten the stability of the slave societies. Some abolitionists collaborated on relocation of free blacks, as they were discouraged by
racial discrimination against them in the North and believed they would never be accepted in the larger society.
 Most blacks, who were native-born by this time, wanted to work toward justice in the United States rather than emigrate.
 Leading activists in the North strongly opposed the ACS, but some free blacks were ready to try a different environment.
In 1822, the American Colonization Society began sending black volunteers to the Pepper Coast to establish a colony for freed blacks. By 1867, the ACS (and state-related chapters) had assisted in the migration of more than 13,000 blacks to Liberia.
 These free African-Americans and their descendants married within their community and came to identify as
Americo-Liberians. Many were of mixed race and educated in American culture; they did not identify with the indigenous natives of the tribes they encountered. They intermarried largely within the colonial community, developing an ethnic group that had a cultural tradition infused with American notions of political republicanism and Protestant Christianity.
Map of Liberia Colony in the 1830s, created by the ACS, and also showing Mississippi Colony and other state-sponsored colonies.
The ACS, the private organization supported by prominent American politicians such as
Henry Clay, and
James Monroe, believed repatriation of free African Americans was preferable to widespread
emancipation of slaves.
 Similar state-based organizations established colonies in
Mississippi-in-Africa and the
Republic of Maryland, which were later annexed by Liberia.
The Americo-Liberian settlers did not relate well to the indigenous peoples they encountered, especially those in communities of the more isolated "
bush", They knew nothing of their cultures, languages or animist religion. Encounters with tribal Africans in the bush often developed as violent confrontations. The colonial settlements were raided by the
Grebo from their inland chiefdoms. Because of feeling set apart and superior by their culture and education to the indigenous peoples, the Americo-Liberians developed as a small elite that held on to political power. It excluded the indigenous tribesmen from birthright citizenship in their own lands until 1904, in a repetition of the United States' treatment of
 Because of
ethnocentrism and the cultural gap, the Americo-Liberians envisioned creating a western-style state to which the tribesmen should assimilate. They promoted religious organizations to set up missions and schools to educate the indigenous peoples.
On July 26, 1847, the settlers issued a
Declaration of Independence and promulgated a
constitution. Based on the political principles denoted in the
United States Constitution, it established the independent Republic of Liberia.
United Kingdom was the first country to recognize Liberia's independence.
The leadership of the new nation consisted largely of the
Americo-Liberians, who initially established political and economic dominance in the coastal areas that had been purchased by the ACS; they maintained relations with United States contacts in developing these areas and the resulting trade. Their passage of the 1865 Ports of Entry Act prohibited foreign commerce with the inland tribes, ostensibly to "encourage the growth of civilized values" before such trade was allowed in the region.
By 1877, the Americo-Liberian
True Whig Party was the most powerful political power in the country.
 It was made up primarily of people from the Americo-Liberian ethnic group, who maintained social, economic and political dominance well into the 20th century, repeating patterns of European colonists in other nations in Africa. Competition for office was usually contained within the party; a party nomination virtually ensured election.
Pressure from the United Kingdom, which controlled
Sierra Leone to the west, and
France with its interests in the north and east led to a loss of Liberia's claims to extensive territories. Both Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast annexed some territories.
 Liberia struggled to attract investment in order to develop infrastructure and a larger, industrial economy.
There was a decline in production of Liberian goods in the late 19th century, and the government struggled financially, resulting in indebtedness on a series of international loans.
 On July 16, 1892, Martha Ann Erskine Ricks met
Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle and presented her a hand made quilt, Liberia's first diplomatic gift. Born into slavery in Tennessee, Ricks stated, "I had heard it often, from the time I was a child, how good the Queen had been to my people – to slaves – and how she wanted us to be free."
American and other international interests emphasized resource extraction, with rubber production a major industry in the early 20th century.
In the mid-20th century, Liberia gradually began to modernize with American assistance. During
World War II, the United States made major infrastructure improvements to support its military efforts in Africa and Europe against the Nazis. It built the
Freeport of Monrovia and
Roberts International Airport under the
Lend-Lease program before its entry into the Second World War.
After the war, President
William Tubman encouraged foreign investment in the country. Liberia had the second-highest rate of economic growth in the world during the 1950s.
Liberia also began to take a more active role in international affairs. It was a founding member of the
United Nations in 1945 and became a vocal critic of the
 Liberia also served as a proponent both of African independence from the European colonial powers and of
Pan-Africanism, and helped to fund the
Organisation of African Unity.
On April 12, 1980, a military coup led by Master Sergeant
Samuel Doe of the
Krahn ethnic group overthrew and killed President
William R. Tolbert, Jr.. Doe and the other plotters later executed a majority of Tolbert's cabinet and other Americo-Liberian government officials and True Whig Party members.
 The coup leaders formed the
People's Redemption Council (PRC) to govern the country.
 A strategic
Cold War ally of the West, Doe received significant financial backing from the United States while critics condemned the PRC for corruption and political repression.
After Liberia adopted a
new constitution in 1985, Doe was elected president in
subsequent elections, which were internationally condemned as fraudulent.
 On November 12, 1985, a failed counter-coup was launched by
Thomas Quiwonkpa, whose soldiers briefly occupied the national
 Government repression intensified in response, as Doe's troops retaliated by executing members of the
Mano ethnic groups in
National Patriotic Front of Liberia, a rebel group led by
Charles Taylor, launched an insurrection in December 1989 against Doe's government with the backing of neighboring countries such as
Burkina Faso and
Ivory Coast. This triggered the
First Liberian Civil War.
 By September 1990, Doe's forces controlled only a small area just outside the capital, and Doe was captured and executed in that month by rebel forces.
The rebels soon split into various factions fighting one another. The
organized a military task force to intervene in the crisis.
 From 1989 to 1996 one of Africa's bloodiest civil wars broke out, claiming the lives of more than 200,000 Liberians and displacing a million others into refugee camps in neighboring countries.
 A peace deal between warring parties was reached in 1995, leading to Taylor's election as president in 1997.
Under Taylor's leadership, Liberia became internationally known as a
pariah state due to its use of
blood diamonds and illegal
timber exports to fund the
Revolutionary United Front in the
Sierra Leone Civil War.
Second Liberian Civil War began in 1999 when
Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy, a rebel group based in the northwest of the country, launched an armed insurrection against Taylor.
In March 2003, a second rebel group,
Movement for Democracy in Liberia, began launching attacks against Taylor from the southeast.
 Peace talks between the factions began in
Accra in June of that year, and Taylor was indicted by the
Special Court for Sierra Leone for crimes against humanity the same month.
 By July 2003, the rebels had launched an
assault on Monrovia.
 Under heavy pressure from the international community and the domestic
Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace movement,
 Taylor resigned in August 2003 and went into exile in
A peace deal was signed later that month.
United Nations Mission in Liberia began arriving in September 2003 to provide security and monitor the peace accord,
 and an interim government took power the following October.
2005 elections were internationally regarded as the most free and fair in Liberian history.
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, a
Harvard-trained economist and former Minister of Finance, was elected as the first female president in Africa.
 Upon her inauguration, Sirleaf requested the extradition of Taylor from Nigeria and transferred him to the
SCSL for trial in
In 2006, the government established a
Truth and Reconciliation Commission to address the causes and crimes of the civil war.