Levant

Levant
Levant
  Countries and regions of the Levant in the broad, historic meaning (equivalent to the eastern Mediterranean)[1]
  Countries of the Levant in 20th century usage[2]
  Countries and regions sometimes included in the 21st century
Countries and regions

 Cyprus
 Israel
 Iraq
 Jordan
 Lebanon
 Palestine
 Syria
 Turkey (Hatay Province)

Population44,550,926[a]
DemonymLevantine
LanguagesLevantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, Domari
Time ZonesUTC+02:00 (EET) (Turkey and Cyprus)
Largest cities

The Levant (t/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands;[3] that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica.[2][4]

The term entered English in the late 15th century from French.[3] It derives from the Italian Levante, meaning "rising", implying the rising of the sun in the east.[2][4] As such, it is broadly equivalent to the term Al-Mashriq (Arabic: اَلْـمَـشْـرِق‎, [ʔalmaʃriq])[5], meaning "the land where the sun rises".[6] In the 13th and 14th centuries, the term levante was used for Italian maritime commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean, including Greece, Anatolia, Syria-Palestine, and Egypt, that is, the lands east of Venice.[2] Eventually the term was restricted to the Muslim countries of Syria-Palestine and Egypt.[2] In 1581, England set up the Levant Company to monopolize commerce with the Ottoman Empire.[2] The name Levant States was used to refer to the French mandate over Syria and Lebanon after World War I.[2][4] This is probably the reason why the term Levant has come to be used synonymously with Syria-Palestine.[2] Some scholars misunderstood the term thinking that it derives from the name of Lebanon.[2] Today the term is often used in conjunction with prehistoric or ancient historical references. It has the same meaning as "Syria-Palestine" or Ash-Shaam (Arabic: الـشَّـام‎, /ʔaʃ-ʃaːm/), the area that is bounded by the Taurus Mountains of Turkey in the North, the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia in the east.[7] It does not include Anatolia (also called Asia Minor), the Caucasus Mountains, or any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper. Cilicia (in Asia Minor) and the Sinai Peninsula (Asian Egypt) are sometimes included.

The term Levant was widely used to describe the region from the 18th to the mid-19th centuries, and has had steady but lower usage since the late 19th century;[8] several dictionaries consider it to be "archaic" today.[9] [10] [11] Both the noun Levant and the adjective Levantine are now commonly used to describe the ancient and modern culture area formerly called Syro-Palestinian or Biblical: archaeologists now speak of the Levant and of Levantine archaeology;[12][13][14][15] food scholars speak of Levantine cuisine;[16][17] and the Latin Christians of the Levant continue to be called Levantine Christians.[18]

The Levant has been described as the "crossroads of western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, and northeast Africa",[19] and the "northwest of the Arabian plate".[20] The populations of the Levant[21][22] share not only the geographic position, but cuisine, some customs, and a very long history. They are often referred to as Levantines.[23]

Etymology

French medal commemorating the war in Cilicia

The term Levant, which appeared in English in 1497, originally meant the East in general or "Mediterranean lands east of Italy".[24] It is borrowed from the French levant "rising", referring to the rising of the sun in the east,[24] or the point where the sun rises.[25] The phrase is ultimately from the Latin word levare, meaning 'lift, raise'. Similar etymologies are found in Greek Ἀνατολή (Anatolē, cf. Anatolia), in Germanic Morgenland (literally, "morning land"), in Italian (as in "Riviera di Levante", the portion of the Liguria coast east of Genoa), in Hungarian Kelet, in Spanish and Catalan Levante and Llevant, ("the place of rising"), and in Hebrew (Hebrew: מִזְרָח‎, mizrāḥ). Most notably, "Orient" and its Latin source oriens meaning "east", is literally "rising", deriving from Latin orior "rise".[26]

The notion of the Levant has undergone a dynamic process of historical evolution in usage, meaning, and understanding. While the term "Levantine" originally referred to the European residents of the eastern Mediterranean region, it later came to refer to regional "native" and "minority" groups.[27]

The term became current in English in the 16th century, along with the first English merchant adventurers in the region; English ships appeared in the Mediterranean in the 1570s, and the English merchant company signed its agreement ("capitulations") with the Ottoman Sultan in 1579.[28] The English Levant Company was founded in 1581 to trade with the Ottoman Empire, and in 1670 the French Compagnie du Levant was founded for the same purpose. At this time, the Far East was known as the "Upper Levant".[2]

Postcard bearing a French stamp inscribed Levant

In early 19th-century travel writing, the term sometimes incorporated certain Mediterranean provinces of the Ottoman empire, as well as independent Greece (and especially the Greek islands). In 19th-century archaeology, it referred to overlapping cultures in this region during and after prehistoric times, intending to reference the place instead of any one culture. The French mandate of Syria and Lebanon (1920–1946) was called the Levant states.[2][4]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Levant
العربية: بلاد الشام
arpetan: Levant
azərbaycanca: Levant
Bân-lâm-gú: Levant
беларуская: Левант
български: Левант
བོད་ཡིག: ལའེ་ཧྥན་ཐ།
bosanski: Levant
català: Xam
čeština: Levanta
Cymraeg: Lefant
dansk: Levanten
Deutsch: Levante
eesti: Levant
Ελληνικά: Λεβάντες
Esperanto: Levantenio
Frysk: Levant
Gaeilge: An Leiveaint
한국어: 레반트
Հայերեն: Լևանտ
हिन्दी: लेवंट
hrvatski: Levant
Bahasa Indonesia: Levant
Interlingue: Levante
íslenska: Botnalönd
עברית: לבנט
Basa Jawa: Levant
ქართული: ლევანტი
Latina: Levans
latviešu: Levante
lietuvių: Levantas
magyar: Levante
македонски: Левант
മലയാളം: ശാം
مصرى: الشام
Nederlands: Levant
日本語: レバント
norsk: Levanten
norsk nynorsk: Levanten
occitan: Levant
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shom
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ਾਮ (ਇਲਾਕਾ)
پنجابی: لیونت
polski: Lewant
română: Levant
русский: Левант
Scots: Levant
shqip: Levanti
Simple English: The Levant
slovenčina: Levanta
slovenščina: Levant
Soomaaliga: Shaam
کوردی: شام
српски / srpski: Левант
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Levant
suomi: Levantti
svenska: Levanten
Tagalog: Levant
தமிழ்: லெவண்ட்
татарча/tatarça: Левант
Türkçe: Levant
українська: Левант
Tiếng Việt: Levant
粵語: 黎凡特
Zazaki: Levant
中文: 黎凡特