Lesbos

Lesbos
Περιφερειακή ενότητα / Δήμος
Λέσβος
Regional unit
View of Mytilene
View of Mytilene
Lesbos within the North Aegean
Lesbos within the North Aegean
Coordinates: 39°10′N 26°20′E / 39°10′N 26°20′E / 39.167; 26.333
CountryGreece
RegionNorth Aegean
CapitalMytilene
Area
 • Total1,632.8 km2 (630.4 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total86,436
 • Density53/km2 (140/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Lesbian
Time zoneEET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)
Postal codes81x xx
Area codes225x0
Car platesΜΥ

Lesbos (s/, US: s/; Greek: Λέσβος Lesvos, pronounced [ˈlezvos]), sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. It has an area of 1,633 km2 (631 sq mi)[1] with 320 kilometres (199 miles) of coastline, making it the third largest island in Greece. It is separated from Turkey by the narrow Mytilini Strait and in late Palaeolithic/Mesolithic times[2] was joined to the Anatolian mainland before the end of the last glacial period.

Lesbos is also the name of a regional unit of the North Aegean region, within which Lesbos island is one of five governing islands. The others are Chios, Ikaria, Lemnos, and Samos. The North Aegean region governs nine inhabited islands: Lesbos, Chios, Psara, Oinousses, Ikaria, Fournoi Korseon, Lemnos, Agios Efstratios and Samos. The capital of the North Aegean Region is Mytilene. The population of Lesbos is approximately 86,000, a third of whom live in its capital, Mytilene, in the southeastern part of the island. The remaining population is distributed in small towns and villages. The largest are Plomari, Kalloni, the Gera Villages, Agiassos, Eresos, and Molyvos (the ancient Mythimna).

According to later Greek writers, Mytilene was founded in the 11th century BC by the family Penthilidae, who arrived from Thessaly, and ruled the city-state until a popular revolt (590–580 BC) led by Pittacus of Mytilene ended their rule. In fact the archaeological and linguistic record may indicate a late Iron Age arrival of Greek settlers although references in Late Bronze Age Hittite archives indicate a likely Greek presence then. The name Mytilene itself seems to be of Hittite origin. According to Homer's Iliad, however, Lesbos was part of the kingdom of Priam in what is now Turkey. Much work remains to be done to determine just what happened and when. In the Middle Ages, it was under Byzantine and then Genoese rule. Lesbos was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1462. The Ottomans then ruled the island until the First Balkan War in 1912, when it became part of the Kingdom of Greece.

History

Sappho listens as the poet Alcaeus plays a kithara. (Painting by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1881)[3]
View of the Roman aqueduct.

According to Classical Greek mythology, Lesbos was the patron god of the island. Macar was reputedly the first king whose many daughters bequeathed their names to some of the present larger towns. In Classical myth his sister, Canace, was killed to have him made king. The place names with female origins are likely to be much earlier settlements named after local goddesses, who were replaced by gods.[citation needed] Homer refers to the island as "Macaros edos", the seat of Macar. Hittite records from the Late Bronze Age name the island Lazpa and must have considered its population significant enough to allow the Hittites to "borrow their gods" (presumably idols) to cure their king when the local gods were not forthcoming. It is believed that emigrants from mainland Greece, mainly from Thessaly, entered the island in the Late Bronze Age and bequeathed it with the Aeolic dialect of the Greek language, whose written form survives in the poems of Sappho, amongst others.

The abundant grey pottery ware found on the island and the worship of Cybele, the great mother-goddess of Anatolia, suggest the cultural continuity of the population from Neolithic times. When the Persian king Cyrus defeated Croesus (546 BC) the Ionic Greek cities of Anatolia and the adjacent islands became Persian subjects and remained such until the Persians were defeated by the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis (480 BC). The island was governed by an oligarchy in archaic times, followed by quasi-democracy in classical times. For a short period it was a member of the Athenian confederacy, its apostasy from which is recounted by Thucydides in the Mytilenian Debate, in Book III of his History of the Peloponnesian War. In Hellenistic times, the island belonged to various Successor kingdoms until 79 BC when it passed into Roman hands.

Map of Lesbos by Giacomo Franco (1597).

During the Middle Ages it belonged to the Byzantine Empire. In 802, the Byzantine Empress Irene was exiled to Lesbos after her deposition, and died there.[4] The island served as a gathering base for the fleet of the rebel Thomas the Slav in the early 820s.[4]

In the 10th century, it was part of the theme of the Aegean Sea, while in the late 11th century it formed a dioikesis under a kourator in Mytilene.[4] In the 1090s, the island was briefly occupied by the Turkish emir Tzachas, but he was unable to capture Methymna, which resisted throughout.[4] In the 12th century, the island became a frequent target for plundering raids by the Republic of Venice.[4]

The entrance of Ipsilou monastery (St. John).
View of Mytilene in 1905.

After the Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) the island passed to the Latin Empire, but was reconquered by the Empire of Nicaea sometime after 1224.[4] In 1354, it was granted as a fief to the Genoese Francesco I Gattilusio, whose family ruled Lesbos until it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1462.[4] It remained under Turkish rule, named مدللى (Midilli) in Turkish, until 1912 when it was taken by Greek forces during the First Balkan War.

The cities of Mytilene and Methymna have been bishoprics since the 5th century. By the early 10th century, Mytilene had been raised to the status of a metropolitan see. Methymna achieved the same by the 12th century.[4]

The oldest artifacts found on the island may date to the late Paleolithic period.[5] Important archaeological sites on the island are the Neolithic cave of Kagiani, probably a refuge for shepherds, the Neolithic settlement of Chalakies, and the extensive habitation of Thermi (3000–1000 BC). The largest habitation is found in Lisvori (2800–1900 BC) part of which is submerged in shallow coastal waters. There are also several archaic, classical Greek and Roman remains. Vitruvius called the ancient city of Mytilene "magnificent and of good taste". Remnants of its medieval history are three impressive castles.

Lesbos is the birthplace of several famous people. In archaic times, Arion developed the type of poem called dithyramb, the progenitor of tragedy, and Terpander invented the seven note musical scale for the lyre. Two of the nine lyric poets in the Ancient Greek canon, Alcaeus and Sappho, were from Lesbos. Phanias wrote history. The seminal artistic creativity of those times brings to mind the myth of Orpheus to whom Apollo gave a lyre and the Muses taught to play and sing. When Orpheus incurred the wrath of the god Dionysus he was dismembered by the Maenads and of his body parts his head and his lyre found their way to Lesbos where they have "remained" ever since. Pittacus was one of the Seven Sages of Greece. In classical times Hellanicus advanced historiography, Theophrastus, the father of botany, succeeded Aristotle as the head of the Lyceum. Aristotle and Epicurus lived there for some time, and it is there that Aristotle began systematic zoological investigations[6]. In later times lived Theophanes, the historian of Pompey's campaigns, Longus wrote the famous novel Daphnis and Chloe, and much later the historian Doukas wrote the history of the early Ottoman Turks. In modern times the poet Odysseus Elytis, descendant of an old family of Lesbos received the Nobel Prize.

The Roman Aqueduct at Mória.
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Lesbos
አማርኛ: ለስቦስ
العربية: لسبوس
azərbaycanca: Lesbos
беларуская: Лесбас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лесбас
Bikol Central: Lesbos
български: Лесбос
brezhoneg: Lesbos
català: Lesbos
čeština: Lesbos
Cymraeg: Lesbos
dansk: Lesbos
Deutsch: Lesbos
eesti: Lesbos
Ελληνικά: Λέσβος
español: Lesbos
euskara: Lesbos
فارسی: لسبوس
føroyskt: Lesbos
français: Lesbos
Frysk: Lesbos
galego: Lesbos
한국어: 레스보스 섬
Հայերեն: Լեսբոս
hrvatski: Lezbos
Bahasa Indonesia: Lesbos
Interlingue: Lesbos
íslenska: Lesbos
italiano: Lesbo
עברית: לסבוס
ქართული: ლესბოსი
kurdî: Lesbos
Latina: Lesbos
latviešu: Lesba
lietuvių: Lesbas
magyar: Leszbosz
македонски: Лезбос
Bahasa Melayu: Lesbos
Nederlands: Lesbos (eiland)
日本語: レスボス島
Napulitano: Lesbo
norsk: Lésvos
norsk nynorsk: Lésvos
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Lesbos
polski: Lesbos
português: Lesbos
română: Lesbos
русский: Лесбос
Scots: Lesbos
shqip: Lesbos
sicilianu: Lesbu
Simple English: Lesbos
slovenčina: Lesbos
slovenščina: Lezbos
српски / srpski: Лезбос
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lezbos
suomi: Lesbos
svenska: Lesbos
тоҷикӣ: Лесбос
Türkçe: Midilli (ada)
українська: Лесбос
اردو: لزبوس
Tiếng Việt: Lesbos
Winaray: Lesbos