Temporal range: Early Pleistocene to recent
Namibie Etosha Leopard 01edit.jpg
Leopard in Etosha National Park, Namibia
Scientific classification edit
P. pardus[1]
Binomial name
Panthera pardus[1]

see text

Leopard distribution.jpg
Present and historical distribution of the leopard[2]

The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five extant species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.[3] It occurs in a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa, in small parts of Western Asia, on the Indian subcontinent to Southeast and East Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because leopard populations are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and are declining in large parts of the global range. In Hong Kong, Singapore, Kuwait, Syria, Libya, Tunisia and most likely in Morocco, leopard populations have already been extirpated.[2]Contemporary records suggest that the leopard occurs in only 25% of its historical global range.[4][5]Leopards are hunted illegally, and their body parts are smuggled in the wildlife trade for medicinal practices and decoration.[6][7]

Compared to other wild cats, the leopard has relatively short legs and a long body with a large skull. Its fur is marked with rosettes. It is similar in appearance to the jaguar, but has a smaller, lighter physique, and its rosettes are generally smaller, more densely packed and without central spots. Both leopards and jaguars that are melanistic are known as black panthers. The leopard is distinguished by its well-camouflaged fur, opportunistic hunting behaviour, broad diet, strength, and its ability to adapt to a variety of habitats ranging from rainforest to steppe, including arid and montane areas. It can run at speeds of up to 58 kilometres per hour (36 mph).[8] The earliest known leopard fossils excavated in Europe are estimated 600,000 years old, dating to the late Early Pleistocene.[9] Leopard fossils were also found in Japan.[10]


The common name 'leopard' is derived from the Old English word 'leuparz' used in the poem The Song of Roland written in the late 8th century.[11] It is thought to be a Greek compound of λέων 'leōn' meaning lion and πάρδος 'pardos'.[12]

The word 'panther' is derived from the Latin word 'panther' and the ancient Greek πάνθηρ 'pánthēr'.[13][14] The phonetically similar sounding Sanskrit word पाण्डर 'pând-ara' means 'pale yellow, whitish, white'.[15] The specific name pardus is derived from the Greek πάρδαλος 'pardalos' meaning 'spotted'.[16]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Щомыщ
Afrikaans: Luiperd
አማርኛ: ግሥላ
Ænglisc: Lafor
العربية: نمر
aragonés: Panthera pardus
asturianu: Panthera pardus
Avañe'ẽ: Jaguareteru
azərbaycanca: Qaplan
تۆرکجه: قافلان
বাংলা: চিতাবাঘ
Bân-lâm-gú: Hoe-pà
беларуская: Леапард
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Леапард
български: Леопард
བོད་ཡིག: གཟིག
bosanski: Leopard
brezhoneg: Panterenn
буряад: Леопард
català: Lleopard
chiShona: Mbada
chiTumbuka: Nyalubwe
corsu: Leupardu
dansk: Leopard
Deutsch: Leopard
eesti: Leopard
Ελληνικά: Λεοπάρδαλη
español: Panthera pardus
Esperanto: Leopardo
euskara: Lehoinabar
فارسی: پلنگ
føroyskt: Leopardur
français: Léopard
Fulfulde: Cirgu
Gaeilge: Liopard
Gagauz: Leopard
Gàidhlig: Leopard
galego: Leopardo
ГӀалгӀай: Ферх
ગુજરાતી: દિપડો
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pau-é
한국어: 표범
Hausa: Damisa
հայերեն: Ընձառյուծ
हिन्दी: तेन्दुआ
hrvatski: Leopard
Igbo: Ágụ
Bahasa Indonesia: Macan tutul
interlingua: Leopardo
Ирон: Фæранк
íslenska: Hlébarði
italiano: Panthera pardus
עברית: נמר
Basa Jawa: Macan tutul
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಚಿರತೆ
ქართული: ჯიქი
қазақша: Леопард
Kiswahili: Chui
Kongo: Yingo
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lewopa
Кыргызча: Кабылан
лакку: Паланг
latgaļu: Leopards
Latina: Pardus
latviešu: Leopards
lietuvių: Leopardas
lingála: Nkɔi
magyar: Leopárd
मैथिली: चितवा
македонски: Леопард
मराठी: बिबट्या
მარგალური: ჯიჯაღი
مصرى: فهد
Bahasa Melayu: Harimau Bintang
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Huă-báu
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကျားသစ်
Nāhuatl: Xacocelotl
Nederlands: Luipaard
日本語: ヒョウ
Nordfriisk: Leopard
norsk: Leopard
norsk nynorsk: Leopard
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਚਿੱਤਰਾ
پنجابی: تیندوہ
português: Leopardo
română: Leopard
Runa Simi: Misti hawar
русский: Леопард
संस्कृतम्: चित्रकः
Scots: Leopard
Sesotho: Nkwe
Sesotho sa Leboa: Nkwe
shqip: Leopardi
sicilianu: Liupardu
සිංහල: කොටියා
Simple English: Leopard
slovenčina: Leopard škvrnitý
slovenščina: Leopard
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Лєопардъ
کوردی: پڵنگ
српски / srpski: Леопард
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Leopard
Basa Sunda: Maung tutul
suomi: Leopardi
svenska: Leopard
Tagalog: Leopardo
தமிழ்: சிறுத்தை
татарча/tatarça: Каплан
тоҷикӣ: Паланг
Tshivenda: Nngwe
ತುಳು: ಚಿರತೆ
Türkçe: Pars
Türkmençe: Alajagaplaň
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Kuac
українська: Пантера плямиста
اردو: تیندوا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: قاپلان
Vahcuengh: Duzbeuq
vèneto: Lionpardo
Tiếng Việt: Báo hoa mai
ייִדיש: לעמפערט