Law

  • iustitia ("lady justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard, and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.[1]

    law is commonly understood as a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate conduct,[2] although its precise definition is a matter of longstanding debate.[3][4][5] it has been variously described as a science[6][7] and the art of justice.[8][9][10] state-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. the law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.

    legal systems vary between countries, with their differences analysed in comparative law. in civil law jurisdictions, a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates the law. in common law systems, judges make binding case law through precedent,[11] although on occasion case law may be overturned by a higher court or the legislature.[12] historically, religious law influenced secular matters,[13] and is still used in some religious communities.[14][15] sharia law based on islamic principles is used as the primary legal system in several countries, including iran and saudi arabia.[16][17]

    law's scope can be divided into two domains. public law concerns government and society, including constitutional law, administrative law, and criminal law. private law deals with legal disputes between individuals and/or organisations in areas such as contracts, property, torts/delicts and commercial law.[18] this distinction is stronger in civil law countries, particularly those with a separate system of administrative courts;[19][20] by contrast, the public-private law divide is less pronounced in common law jurisdictions.[21][22]

    law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history,[23] philosophy,[24] economic analysis[25] and sociology.[26] law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice.[27][28]

  • philosophy of law
  • history
  • legal systems
  • legal methods
  • legal institutions
  • areas of law
  • intersection with other fields
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard, and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.[1]

Law is commonly understood as a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate conduct,[2] although its precise definition is a matter of longstanding debate.[3][4][5] It has been variously described as a science[6][7] and the art of justice.[8][9][10] State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.

Legal systems vary between countries, with their differences analysed in comparative law. In civil law jurisdictions, a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates the law. In common law systems, judges make binding case law through precedent,[11] although on occasion case law may be overturned by a higher court or the legislature.[12] Historically, religious law influenced secular matters,[13] and is still used in some religious communities.[14][15] Sharia law based on Islamic principles is used as the primary legal system in several countries, including Iran and Saudi Arabia.[16][17]

Law's scope can be divided into two domains. Public law concerns government and society, including constitutional law, administrative law, and criminal law. Private law deals with legal disputes between individuals and/or organisations in areas such as contracts, property, torts/delicts and commercial law.[18] This distinction is stronger in civil law countries, particularly those with a separate system of administrative courts;[19][20] by contrast, the public-private law divide is less pronounced in common law jurisdictions.[21][22]

Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history,[23] philosophy,[24] economic analysis[25] and sociology.[26] Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice.[27][28]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Reg
Akan: Mmara
Alemannisch: Recht
አማርኛ: ሕግ
العربية: قانون
aragonés: Dreito
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܢܘܢܐ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Իրաւունք
asturianu: Derechu
Avañe'ẽ: Tekoiterape
azərbaycanca: Hüquq
تۆرکجه: حوقوق
bamanankan: Sàrìya
বাংলা: আইন
Bân-lâm-gú: Hoat-lu̍t
Basa Banyumasan: Hukum
башҡортса: Хоҡуҡ
беларуская: Права
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Права
भोजपुरी: कानून
български: Право
Boarisch: Recht
བོད་ཡིག: ཁྲིམས།
bosanski: Pravo
brezhoneg: Gwir (lezenn)
буряад: Хуули
català: Dret
Cebuano: Pamalaod
čeština: Právo
Chamoru: Lai
corsu: Drittu
Cymraeg: Cyfraith
dansk: Jura
Deutsch: Recht
eesti: Õigus
Ελληνικά: Δίκαιο
español: Derecho
Esperanto: Juro
estremeñu: Derechu
euskara: Zuzenbide
فارسی: قانون
Fiji Hindi: Kanuun
français: Droit
Frysk: Rjocht
furlan: Dirit
Gaeilge: Dlí
Gaelg: Leigh
Gàidhlig: Lagh
galego: Dereito
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fap-li̍t
한국어:
հայերեն: Իրավունք
हिन्दी: विधि
hrvatski: Pravo
Ilokano: Linteg
Bahasa Indonesia: Hukum
interlingua: Derecto
Interlingue: Jure
Ирон: Барад
isiXhosa: Umthetho
íslenska: Lögfræði
italiano: Diritto
עברית: דין
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕಾನೂನು
къарачай-малкъар: Хакъ
ქართული: სამართალი
қазақша: Құқық
Kiswahili: Sheria
коми: Инӧд
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lwa (dwa)
kriyòl gwiyannen: Drwè
kurdî: Dad
Кыргызча: Укук
Ladino: Dirito
Latina: Ius
latviešu: Tieslietas
Lëtzebuergesch: Droit
lietuvių: Teisė
Ligure: Diritto
Limburgs: Rech
Lingua Franca Nova: Lege
la .lojban.: flalu
magyar: Jog
मैथिली: कानून
македонски: Право
Malagasy: Lalàna
മലയാളം: നിയമം
Malti: Dritt
Māori: Ture
मराठी: कायदा
მარგალური: სამართალი
مصرى: قانون
Bahasa Melayu: Undang-undang
Minangkabau: Hukum
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Huák-lŭk
Mirandés: Dreito
монгол: Хууль
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဥပဒေ
Nederlands: Recht
Nedersaksies: Recht
नेपाली: कानुन
日本語: 法 (法学)
нохчийн: Бакъо
Nordfriisk: Rocht
Nouormand: Loué
occitan: Drech
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Huquq
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਾਨੂੰਨ
پنجابی: قنون
پښتو: حقوق
Patois: Laa
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ច្បាប់
Piemontèis: Lej
Tok Pisin: Lo
Plattdüütsch: Juristeree
polski: Prawo
português: Direito
română: Drept
Runa Simi: Chiqa
русиньскый: Право
русский: Право
sardu: Deretu
Scots: Law
shqip: Ligji
sicilianu: Liggi
සිංහල: නීතිය
Simple English: Law
سنڌي: قانون
slovenčina: Objektívne právo
slovenščina: Pravo
Soomaaliga: Sharci
کوردی: یاسا
српски / srpski: Право
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pravo
Sunda: Hukum
suomi: Laki
svenska: Juridik
Tagalog: Batas
தமிழ்: சட்டம்
татарча/tatarça: Хокук
тоҷикӣ: Ҳуқуқ
Türkçe: Hukuk
українська: Право
اردو: قانون
Vahcuengh: Faplwd
vèneto: Derito
Tiếng Việt: Luật pháp
Volapük: Detik
文言: 法律
Winaray: Balaud
吴语: 法律
Xitsonga: Nawu
ייִדיש: געזעץ
Yorùbá: Òfin
粵語: 法律
Zazaki: Hıquq
Zeêuws: Recht
žemaitėška: Teisė
中文: 法律