The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (key
) is inscribed with small writing hammered into its surface. It shows heavy
Indian cultural influence
(by way of
) present in the Philippines prior to European colonization in the 16th century.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (
Filipino: Inskripsyon sa Binatbat na Tanso ng Laguna,
Malay: Prasasti keping tembaga Laguna; often shortened into the acronym LCI), a legal document
inscribed on a copper plate in 900 AD, is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines.
The plate was found in 1989 by a laborer near the mouth of the Lumbang River in Wawa
Laguna province. The inscription, written in a mix of the
Old Malay language using the
Old Kawi script, was first deciphered by Dutch anthropologist and
Hanunó'o script expert
Antoon Postma in 1992.
The LCI documents the existence of several
early Philippine polities as early as 900 AD, most notably the Pasig River delta polity of
 Scholars believe that it also indicates trade, cultural, and possibly political ties between these polities and at least one contemporaneous Asian civilization—the
Medang Kingdom of the island of
The inscription was written in
Kawi script—a writing system developed in Java, and using a mixture of languages including
old Malay and
old Tagalog. This was a rare trace of Javanese influence, which suggests the extent of interinsular exchanges of that time.