The summer of 1944 was a busy time for the Home Army (Armia Krajowa) – the biggest underground organization of German-occupied Poland. The Red Army was mercilessly pushing the Wehrmacht towards the west, and the headquarters of AK decided to launch Operation Tempest (Plan Burza): a series of local uprisings, whose purpose was to seize control of cities and areas where German forces were preparing their defence against the Soviet Red Army, so that Polish underground civilian authorities could take power before the arrival of the Soviets.
, one of the symbols of the Armia Krajowa
Several operations took place i.e. Operation Ostra Brama, Lwów Uprising and the biggest and the most important – Warsaw Uprising, however, an uprising planned for months in another key city of the country, Kraków, failed to take place.