Republic of Kosovo

  • Republika e Kosovës (Albanian)
  • Република Косово
    Republika Kosovo
Anthem: "Europe"[1]
Location of Kosovo in the World
Location of Kosovo in the World
and largest city
42°40′N 21°10′E / 42°40′N 21°10′E / 42.667; 21.167
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
  • Kosovar, Kosovan
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Hashim Thaçi
Ramush Haradinaj
Kadri Veseli
LegislatureAssembly of Kosovo
31 January 1946
2 July 1990
10 June 1999
June 1999
17 February 2008
10 September 2012
19 April 2013
• Total
10,908 km2 (4,212 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2017 estimate
• Density
159/km2 (411.8/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$20.857 billion[4]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$7.839 billion[4]
• Per capita
Gini (2015)23.2[5]
low · 121
HDI (2013)Increase 0.786[6]
CurrencyEuro ()d (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+383e
ISO 3166 codeXK
  1. Pristina is the capital and Prizren is the historic capital of Kosovo.[7]
  2. 2014 estimate. A new estimate has been added in order to give a more correct GDP per capita.
  3. Adopted unilaterally; Kosovo is not a formal member of the eurozone.
  4. Assigned 15 December 2016 to Kosovo by ITU.[8] +381 was previously used for fixed lines. Kosovo-licensed mobile-phone providers used +377 (Monaco) or +386 (Slovenia) instead.
  5. XK is a "user assigned" ISO 3166 code not designated by the standard, but used by the European Commission, Switzerland, the Deutsche Bundesbank and other organisations. However, ISO 3166-2:RS remains in use.

Kosovo (-/; Albanian: Kosova pronounced [kɔˈsɔva] or Kosovë pronounced [kɔˈsɔvə]; Serbian Cyrillic: Косово pronounced [kôsoʋo]), officially the Republic of Kosovo (Albanian: Republika e Kosovës; Serbian: Република Косово/Republika Kosovo), is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe.[9][10][11][12][13]

Defined in an area of 10,908 square kilometres (4,212 sq mi), Kosovo is landlocked in the center of the Balkans and bordered by the uncontested territory of Serbia to the north and east, the Republic of Macedonia to the southeast, Albania to the southwest and Montenegro to the west.

Geographically, Kosovo possesses varied and opposing landscapes for such a small country determined by the ideal climate along with the geology and hydrology. Most of central Kosovo is dominated by the vast plains of Dukagjin and Kosovo. The Albanian Alps and Šar Mountains rise in the southwest and southeast respectively.

The history of Kosovo dates back to the Paleolithic era, represented by the Vinča and Starčevo cultures. During the Classical period, it was inhabited by the Illyrian-Dardanian and Celtic people. In 168 BC, the area was annexed by the Romans.[14] In the Middle Ages, it was conquered by the Byzantine, Bulgarian and Serbian Empires. The Battle of Kosovo of 1389 is considered to be one of the defining moments in Serbian medieval history. The region was the core of the Serbian medieval state, which has also been the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century, when its status was upgraded to a patriarchate.[15][16]

Kosovo was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the early 20th century. In the late 19th century, it became the centre of the Albanian National Awakening. Following their defeat in the Balkan Wars, the Ottomans ceded Kosovo to Serbia and Montenegro. Both countries joined Yugoslavia after World War I, and following a period of Yugoslav unitarianism in the Kingdom, the post-World War II Yugoslav constitution established the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within the Yugoslav constituent Republic of Serbia. Tensions between Kosovo's Albanian and Serb communities simmered through the 20th century and occasionally erupted into major violence, culminating in the Kosovo War of 1998 and 1999, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Yugoslav Army and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.

On 17 February 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia.[17] It has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by 113 UN member states, but has also been derecognized by several countries as well. Serbia does not recognize Kosovo as a state,[18] although with the Brussels Agreement of 2013, it has accepted its institutions. While Serbia recognises administration of the territory by Kosovo's elected government,[19] it continues to claim it as its own Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.

Kosovo has a lower-middle-income economy and has experienced solid economic growth over the last decade by international financial institutions, and has experienced growth every year since the onset of the 2008 global financial crisis.[20] Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Regional Cooperation Council and has applied for membership of Interpol and for observer status in the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation.


Dardania in the 4th century during the sovereignty of the Roman Empire.

The entire region that today corresponds to the territory is commonly referred to in English simply as Kosovo and in Albanian as Kosova or Kosovë (definite form, Albanian pronunciation: [kɔˈsɔːva]) or Kosovë ("indefinite" form, Albanian pronunciation: [kɔˈsɔːv]). In Serbia, a formal distinction is made between the eastern and western areas; the term Kosovo (Косово) is used for the eastern part centred on the historical Kosovo Field, while the western part is called Metohija (Метохија) (known as Dukagjini in Albanian).[21]

According to one theory, Kosovo (Serbian Cyrillic: Косово, Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [kôsoʋo]) is the Serbian neuter possessive adjective of kos (кос) "blackbird", an ellipsis for Kosovo Polje, 'blackbird field', the name of a plain situated in the eastern half of today's Kosovo and the site of the 1389 Battle of Kosovo Field.[22][23] The name of the plain was applied to the Kosovo Province created in 1864.

Albanians also refer to Kosovo as Dardania, the name of a Roman province formed in 165 BC, which covered the territory of modern Kosovo. The name is derived from ancient tribe of Dardani, ultimately from proto-Albanian word dardha/dardā which means "pear".[24] The former Kosovo President Ibrahim Rugova had been an enthusiastic backer of a "Dardanian" identity and the Kosovan flag and presidential seal refer to this national identity. However, the name "Kosova" remains more widely used among the Albanian population.

The current borders of Kosovo were drawn while part of SFR Yugoslavia in 1945, when the Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija (1945–1963) was created as an administrative division of the new People's Republic of Serbia. In 1963, it was raised from the level of an autonomous region to the level of an autonomous province as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (1963–1968). In 1968, the dual name "Kosovo and Metohija" was reduced to a simple "Kosovo" in the name of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. In 1990, the province was renamed the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.[25]

The official conventional long name of the state is Republic of Kosovo, as defined by the Constitution of Kosovo, and is used to represent Kosovo internationally.[26] Additionally, as a result of an arrangement agreed between Pristina and Belgrade in talks mediated by the European Union, Kosovo has participated in some international forums and organisations under the title "Kosovo*" with a footnote stating "This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSC 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence". This arrangement, which has been dubbed the "asterisk agreement", was agreed in an 11-point arrangement agreed on 24 February 2012.[27]

Other Languages
Acèh: Kosovo
Afrikaans: Kosovo
Alemannisch: Kosovo
አማርኛ: ኮሶቮ
Ænglisc: Kosovo
العربية: كوسوفو
aragonés: Kosovo
armãneashti: Cosova
arpetan: Kosovo
asturianu: Kosovu
Avañe'ẽ: Kosovo
Aymar aru: Kusuwu
azərbaycanca: Kosovo
تۆرکجه: کوزووو
বাংলা: কসোভো
Bân-lâm-gú: Kosovo
беларуская: Рэспубліка Косава
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Косава
Bikol Central: Kosobo
български: Косово
Boarisch: Kosovo
བོད་ཡིག: ཁོ་སོ་ཝོ།
bosanski: Kosovo
brezhoneg: Kosovo
català: Kosovo
Cebuano: Kosobo
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Kosovo
chiShona: Kosovo
Cymraeg: Cosofo
dansk: Kosovo
Deutsch: Kosovo
dolnoserbski: Kosowo
eesti: Kosovo
Ελληνικά: Κοσσυφοπέδιο
español: Kosovo
Esperanto: Kosovo
estremeñu: Cosovu
euskara: Kosovo
فارسی: کوزوو
Fiji Hindi: Kosovo
føroyskt: Kosovo
français: Kosovo
Frysk: Kosovo
Gaeilge: An Chosaiv
Gaelg: Kosovo
Gagauz: Kosova
Gàidhlig: Cosobho
galego: Kosovo
贛語: 科索沃
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌺𐌰𐌿𐍃𐍉𐌱𐍉
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kosovo
한국어: 코소보
հայերեն: Կոսովո
hornjoserbsce: Kosowo
hrvatski: Kosovo
Ido: Kosovo
Igbo: Kosovo
Bahasa Indonesia: Kosovo
interlingua: Kosovo
Interlingue: Kosovo
Ирон: Косово
íslenska: Kosóvó
italiano: Kosovo
עברית: קוסובו
Basa Jawa: Kosovo
kalaallisut: Kosovo
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೊಸೊವೊ
ქართული: კოსოვო
қазақша: Косово
kernowek: Kosova
Kinyarwanda: Kosovo
Kiswahili: Kosovo
коми: Косово
kurdî: Kosova
Кыргызча: Косово
Ladino: Kosovo
лакку: Косова
لۊری شومالی: کوزوڤو
Latina: Kosovia
latviešu: Kosova
Lëtzebuergesch: Kosovo
lietuvių: Kosovas
Ligure: Kosovo
Limburgs: Kosovo
Lingua Franca Nova: Cosovo
lumbaart: Kosovo
magyar: Koszovó
македонски: Република Косово
മലയാളം: കൊസോവോ
Malti: Kosovo
मराठी: कोसोव्हो
მარგალური: კოსოვო
مصرى: كوسوفو
مازِرونی: کوزوو
Bahasa Melayu: Kosovo
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Kosovo
монгол: Косово
Nāhuatl: Cosovo
Dorerin Naoero: Kosovo
Nederlands: Kosovo
Nedersaksies: Kosovo
नेपाली: कोसोभो
日本語: コソボ
Nordfriisk: Kosovo
norsk: Kosovo
norsk nynorsk: Kosovo
Nouormand: Kosovo
Novial: Kosovo
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kosovo
پنجابی: کوسوو
Papiamentu: Kosovo
Picard: Kosovo
Piemontèis: Kosovo
Plattdüütsch: Kosovo
polski: Kosowo
Ποντιακά: Κόσοβο
português: Kosovo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kosovo
qırımtatarca: Kosovo
Ripoarisch: Kosovo
română: Kosovo
rumantsch: Cosovo
Runa Simi: Kusuwu
русиньскый: Косово
саха тыла: Косова
Gagana Samoa: Kosovo
sardu: Kòssovu
Scots: Kosovo
Seeltersk: Kosovo
shqip: Kosova
sicilianu: Kòssuvu
සිංහල: කොසෝවො
Simple English: Kosovo
slovenčina: Kosovo
slovenščina: Kosovo
ślůnski: Kosowo
Soomaaliga: Kosofo
کوردی: کۆسۆڤۆ
Sranantongo: Kosovokondre
српски / srpski: Република Косово
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kosovo
Basa Sunda: Kosovo
suomi: Kosovo
svenska: Kosovo
Tagalog: Kosovo
தமிழ்: கொசோவோ
Taqbaylit: Kosovo
татарча/tatarça: Косово Җөмһүрияте
తెలుగు: కొసావో
Türkçe: Kosova
українська: Косово
اردو: کوسووہ
Vahcuengh: Kosovo
vèneto: Kosovo
Tiếng Việt: Kosovo
Volapük: Kosovän
Võro: Kosovo
文言: 科索沃
West-Vlams: Kosovo
Winaray: Kosovo
吴语: 科索沃
Xitsonga: Kosovo
Yorùbá: Kósófò
粵語: 科索沃
Zazaki: Kosova
Zeêuws: Kosovo
žemaitėška: Kuosuovs
中文: 科索沃