Korean War

Korean War
In South Korea: (한국전쟁,6.25 전쟁)
In North Korea: (조국해방전쟁)
Part of the Cold War and the inter- Korean conflict
Korean War Montage 2.png
Clockwise from top: A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir; UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon; Korean refugees in front of a U.S. M26 Pershing tank; U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon; F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
Date 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953
(3 years, 1 month and 2 days)
Location Korean Peninsula, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan, Korea Strait, China–North Korea border
Result

Military stalemate

  • North Korean invasion of South Korea repelled
  • Subsequent U.S.-led United Nations invasion of North Korea repelled
  • Subsequent Chinese invasion of South Korea repelled
  • Korean Armistice Agreement
  • Korean conflict ongoing
Territorial
changes
  • Korean Demilitarized Zone established
  • Division of the sovereign states of North Korea and South Korea
  • North Korea gains city of Kaesong but loses a net total of 3,900 km2 (1,500 sq mi) to South Korea [10]
Belligerents
Commanders and leaders
Strength
Total: 972,214
Total: 1,642,600
Note: The figures vary by source; peak unit strength varied during war.
Casualties and losses

Total: 178,405 dead and 32,925 missing
Total wounded: 566,434

Total: 398,000–750,000+ dead and 145,000+ missing
Total wounded: 686,500–789,000

  • Total civilians killed/wounded: 2.5 million (est.) [16]
  • South Korea: 990,968 killed/wounded
    373,599 killed [16]
    229,625 wounded [16]
    387,744 abducted/missing [16]
  • North Korea: 1,550,000 killed/wounded (est.) [16]

The Korean War (in South Korean Hangul한국전쟁; Hanja韓國戰爭; RRHanguk Jeonjaeng, "Korean War"; in North Korean Chosŏn'gŭl조국해방전쟁; Hancha祖國解放戰爭; MRChoguk haebang chǒnjaeng, "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) [36] [b] [38] was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States). The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea [39] [40] following a series of clashes along the border. [41] [42] The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of South Korea. China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union also gave some assistance to the North.

Korea was ruled by Imperial Japan from 1910 until the closing days of World War II. In August 1945, one day after the bombing of Nagasaki, the Soviet Union declared war on Imperial Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, and liberated Korea north of the 38th parallel. U.S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments. Both claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—moved into the south on 25 June 1950. [43] On 27 June, the United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. [44] Twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing 88% of the UN's military personnel.

After the first two months of war, South Korean and U.S. forces rapidly dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces rapidly approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. [43] The surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951.

After these reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, and Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.

The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty has been signed, and according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war. [45] [46]

As a war undeclared by all participants, the conflict helped bring the term " police action" into common use. It also led to the permanent alteration of the balance of power within the United Nations, where Resolution 377—passed in 1950 to allow a bypassing of the Security Council if that body could not reach an agreement—led to the General Assembly displacing the Security Council as the primary organ of the UN. [47]

Names

Korean War
South Korean name
Hangul 한국전쟁
North Korean name
Chosŏn'gŭl 조선전쟁

In South Korea, the war is usually referred to as " 625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval" (6.25 동란 (動亂), yook-i-o dongnan), reflecting the date of its commencement on 25 June. [48]

In North Korea, the war is officially referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" (Choguk haebang chǒnjaeng) or alternatively the " Chosǒn [Korean] War" (조선전쟁, Chosǒn chǒnjaeng). [49]

In China, the war is officially called the "War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea" ( simplified Chinese: 抗美援朝战争; traditional Chinese: 抗美援朝戰爭; pinyin: Kàngměiyuáncháo zhànzhēng), [50] [51] although the term " Chaoxian (Korean) War" ( simplified Chinese: 朝鲜战争; traditional Chinese: 朝鮮戰爭; pinyin: Cháoxiǎn zhànzhēng) is also used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Han (Korean) War" ( simplified Chinese: 韩战; traditional Chinese: 韓戰; pinyin: Hán Zhàn) more commonly used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau.

In the U.S., the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a " police action" as it was an undeclared military action, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. [52] It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, and in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, and the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. [53][ dead link] [54]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Korea-oorlog
Alemannisch: Koreakrieg
aragonés: Guerra de Coreya
asturianu: Guerra de Corea
azərbaycanca: Koreya müharibəsi
Bân-lâm-gú: Hân-chiàn
беларуская: Вайна ў Карэі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Карэйская вайна
български: Корейска война
bosanski: Korejski rat
brezhoneg: Brezel Korea
čeština: Korejská válka
Cymraeg: Rhyfel Corea
Deutsch: Koreakrieg
español: Guerra de Corea
Esperanto: Korea milito
euskara: Koreako Gerra
فارسی: جنگ کره
Fiji Hindi: Korean War
føroyskt: Koreakríggið
français: Guerre de Corée
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hòn Chan
한국어: 한국 전쟁
hrvatski: Korejski rat
Bahasa Indonesia: Perang Korea
íslenska: Kóreustríðið
italiano: Guerra di Corea
Basa Jawa: Perang Korea
ქართული: კორეის ომი
қазақша: Корей соғысы
Kiswahili: Vita ya Korea
Кыргызча: Корей согушу
latviešu: Korejas karš
Lëtzebuergesch: Koreakrich
lietuvių: Korėjos karas
македонски: Корејска војна
მარგალური: კორეაშ ლჷმა
Bahasa Melayu: Perang Korea
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hàng Ciéng
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကိုရီးယားစစ်ပွဲ
Nederlands: Koreaanse Oorlog
नेपाल भाषा: कोरिया
日本語: 朝鮮戦争
Nordfriisk: Koreakrich
norsk nynorsk: Koreakrigen
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Koreys urushi
Patois: Korian Waar
Plattdüütsch: Koreakrieg
português: Guerra da Coreia
Scots: Korean War
sicilianu: Guerra di Corea
Simple English: Korean War
slovenčina: Kórejská vojna
slovenščina: Korejska vojna
српски / srpski: Корејски рат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Korejski rat
svenska: Koreakriget
татарча/tatarça: Корея сугышы
тоҷикӣ: Ҷанги Корея
Türkçe: Kore Savaşı
українська: Корейська війна
文言: 韓戰
Winaray: Gera Koreano
吴语: 韩国战争
粵語: 韓戰
žemaitėška: Kuoriejės vaina
中文: 朝鲜战争