Korean War

Korean War
In South Korea: (한국전쟁, 6·25 전쟁)
In North Korea: (조국해방전쟁)
Part of the Cold War and the inter-Korean conflict
Korean War Montage 2.png
Clockwise from top: A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir; UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon; Korean refugees in front of a U.S. M26 Pershing tank; U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon; F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
Date25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953[c]
(3 years, 1 month and 2 days)
Location
Result

Military stalemate

  • North Korean invasion of South Korea repelled
  • Subsequent U.S.-led United Nations invasion of North Korea repelled
  • Subsequent Chinese invasion of South Korea repelled
  • Korean Armistice Agreement signed in 1953
  • Korean conflict ongoing
Territorial
changes
  • Korean Demilitarized Zone established
  • North Korea gains city of Kaesong but loses a net total of 3,900 km2 (1,500 sq mi) to South Korea.[12]
  • Belligerents
    Commanders and leaders
    Strength
    Total: 972,334
    Note: The figures vary by source; peak unit strength varied during war.
    Total: 1,642,600
    Note: The figures vary by source; peak unit strength varied during war.
    Casualties and losses

    Total: 178,405 dead and 32,925 missing
    Total wounded: 566,434

    Total: 398,000–533,000 dead and 145,000+ missing
    Total wounded: 686,500

    • Total civilians killed/wounded: 2.5 million (est.)[18]
    • South Korea: 990,968 killed/wounded
      373,599 killed[18]
      229,625 wounded[18]
      387,744 abducted/missing[18]
    • North Korea: 1,550,000 killed/wounded (est.)[18]

    The Korean War (in South Korean Hangul한국전쟁; Hanja韓國戰爭; RRHanguk Jeonjaeng, "Korean War"; in North Korean Chosŏn'gŭl조국해방전쟁; Hancha祖國解放戰爭; MRChoguk haebang chŏnjaeng, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953)[38][39][d] was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States). The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea[41][42] following a series of clashes along the border.[43][44]

    As a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states. Both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—moved into the south on 25 June 1950.[45] The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea[46] to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion.[47][48] Twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.[49]

    After the first two months of war, South Korean and U.S. forces rapidly dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces rapidly approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war.[45] The surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951.

    In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, and the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, and Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.

    The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was ever signed, and according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict.[50][51] In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone[52] and agreed to sign a treaty by the end of the year to formally end the Korean War.[53]

    As a war undeclared by all participants, the conflict helped bring the term "police action" into common use. It also led to the permanent alteration of the balance of power within the United Nations, where Resolution 377—passed in 1950 to allow a bypassing of the Security Council if that body could not reach an agreement—led to the General Assembly displacing the Security Council as the primary organ of the UN.[54]

    Names

    Korean War
    South Korean name
    Hangul
    한국전쟁
    Hanja
    韓國戰爭
    North Korean name
    Chosŏn'gŭl
    조국해방전쟁
    Hancha
    祖國解放戰爭

    In South Korea, the war is usually referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval" (6.25 동란 (動亂), yook-i-o dongnan), reflecting the date of its commencement on 25 June.[55]

    In North Korea, the war is officially referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" (Choguk haebang chǒnjaeng) or alternatively the "Chosǒn [Korean] War" (조선전쟁, Chosǒn chǒnjaeng).[56]

    In China, the war is officially called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea" (simplified Chinese: 抗美援朝战争; traditional Chinese: 抗美援朝戰爭; pinyin: Kàngměi Yuáncháo Zhànzhēng),[57][58] although the term "Chaoxian (Korean) War" (simplified Chinese: 朝鲜战争; traditional Chinese: 朝鮮戰爭; pinyin: Cháoxiǎn Zhànzhēng) is also used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Han (Korean) War" (simplified Chinese: 韩战; traditional Chinese: 韓戰; pinyin: Hán Zhàn) more commonly used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau.

    In the U.S., the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.[59] It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, and in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, and the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it.[60][61]

    Other Languages
    Afrikaans: Korea-oorlog
    Alemannisch: Koreakrieg
    aragonés: Guerra de Coreya
    asturianu: Guerra de Corea
    azərbaycanca: Koreya müharibəsi
    تۆرکجه: کوره ساواشی
    Bân-lâm-gú: Hân Chiàn
    беларуская: Вайна ў Карэі
    беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Карэйская вайна
    български: Корейска война
    bosanski: Korejski rat
    brezhoneg: Brezel Korea
    čeština: Korejská válka
    Cymraeg: Rhyfel Corea
    Deutsch: Koreakrieg
    español: Guerra de Corea
    Esperanto: Korea milito
    euskara: Koreako Gerra
    فارسی: جنگ کره
    Fiji Hindi: Korean War
    føroyskt: Koreakríggið
    français: Guerre de Corée
    客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hòn Chan
    한국어: 한국 전쟁
    hrvatski: Korejski rat
    Bahasa Indonesia: Perang Korea
    íslenska: Kóreustríðið
    italiano: Guerra di Corea
    Basa Jawa: Perang Korea
    ქართული: კორეის ომი
    қазақша: Корей соғысы
    Kiswahili: Vita ya Korea
    Кыргызча: Корей согушу
    latviešu: Korejas karš
    Lëtzebuergesch: Koreakrich
    lietuvių: Korėjos karas
    македонски: Корејска војна
    მარგალური: კორეაშ ლჷმა
    Bahasa Melayu: Perang Korea
    Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hàng Ciéng
    မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကိုရီးယားစစ်ပွဲ
    Nederlands: Koreaanse Oorlog
    नेपाल भाषा: कोरिया
    日本語: 朝鮮戦争
    Nordfriisk: Koreakrich
    norsk nynorsk: Koreakrigen
    oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Koreys urushi
    Patois: Korian Waar
    Plattdüütsch: Koreakrieg
    português: Guerra da Coreia
    Scots: Korean War
    sicilianu: Guerra di Corea
    Simple English: Korean War
    slovenčina: Kórejská vojna
    slovenščina: Korejska vojna
    српски / srpski: Корејски рат
    srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Korejski rat
    svenska: Koreakriget
    татарча/tatarça: Корея сугышы
    тоҷикӣ: Ҷанги Корея
    Türkçe: Kore Savaşı
    українська: Корейська війна
    文言: 韓戰
    Winaray: Gera Koreano
    吴语: 韩国战争
    粵語: 韓戰
    žemaitėška: Kuoriejės vaina
    中文: 朝鲜战争