Kingdom of Tondo

Kingdom of Tondo
ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ
Kaharian ng Tondo
Personal union with Namayan (1175–1571)[ citation needed]
c. before 900 ( LCI-last historical reference) [1]–1589
Capital Tondo (Now a modern district of Manila) [2]
Languages Old Tagalog, [3]
Old Malay, [4] Middle Chinese (trade languages)
Religion Hinduism [5], Buddhism [6] [7], Folk religion and Islam
Government Monarchy
Lakan
 •  Iron Age – (pre-900)[ citation needed] Amaron[ citation needed]
 •  c. 900 Jayadewa (first according to LCI)
 •  1390?–1420?[ citation needed] Rajah Gambang[ citation needed]
 •  1558–1571 Lakandula
 •  1575–1589 Magat Salamat (last)
Historical era Iron Age
Classical Antiquity
High Middle Ages
 •  Diplomacy with the Medang Kingdom [8] c. before 900 ( LCI-last historical reference) [1]
 •  Majapahit–Luzon

war

1365
 •  Diplomacy with Ming Dynasty [9] 1373
 •  Annexed by Bruneian Empire 1500
 •  Last resistance against Spain 1571
 •  Dissolution of the kingdom 1589
Currency Piloncitos, Gold rings, and Barter [10]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ancient barangay
Prehistory of the Philippines
Kingdom of Maynila
New Spain
Spanish East Indies
Today part of   Philippines
Warning: Value specified for " continent" does not comply
Part of a series on the
Brunei
Emblem of Brunei.svg
Pre-Sultanate
Bruneian Empire
1368
to 1888
House of Bolkiah
(15th century – present)
Sultanate of Sulu
1405
to 1578
Kingdom of Maynila
1500s
to 1571
Kingdom of Tondo
1500s
to 1571
Castille War 1578
Civil War 1660–1673
Sarawak
15th century
to 1841
Labuan
15th century
to 1846
Sabah (North Borneo)
15th century
to 1865
British protectorate 1888–1984
Japanese occupation 1942–1945
Borneo campaign 1945
1945–1946
Revolt 1962

The Kingdom of Tondo ( Filipino: Kaharian ng Tondo [kɐhɐrɪˈən nɐŋ tonˈdo]; Baybayin: Pre-Kudlit:ᜎᜓᜐᜓ(Lusu), Post-Kudlit: ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ; Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū; Sanskrit: तोन्दुन् (Tondu); Malay: Kerajaan Tundun)[ citation needed], also referred to as Tundo, Tundun, Tundok, or Tung-lio, or Lusung,[ dubious ] is one of the major prehispanic Philippine Polties [11] which was located in the Manila Bay area, specifically north of the Pasig River, on Luzon island. [12](p71) [13] It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines' earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (900 CE).

An Indianized kingdom [14] [15] in the 10th century, Tondo built upon its central position[ clarification needed] along ancient regional trading routes[ clarification needed] throughout the archipelago to include, among others, initiating diplomatic and commercial ties with China during the Ming Dynasty. Thus, it became an established force in trade throughout Southeast Asia and East Asia (see Luções).[ editorializing] Tondo's regional prominence further culminated during the period of its associated trade and alliance with Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah.[ according to whom?] And by around 1500, the kingdom reached its peak as a thalassocratic force in the northern part of the archipelago. [16][ better source needed]

Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila (a Spanish fort built on the remains of the Kingdom of Maynila). Tondo's absorption into the Spanish Empire effectively ended its status as an independent kingdom, with its capital now existing as a district of the modern City of Manila.

Etymology

The world in 900 AD and the location of Tondo, also known as Lusung and its neighbors.

Numerous theories on the origin of the name "Tondo" have been put forward. Filipino National Artist Nick Joaquin suggested that it might be a reference to high ground ("tundok"). [17] French linguist Jean-Paul Potet, however, has suggested that the River Mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum, which at the time was called "tundok" ("tinduk-tindukan" today), is the most likely origin of the name. [18]

The bay area in which Tondo can be found was named Lusong or Lusung, a name thought to have been derived from the Tagalog word for a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice. [19] [20] This name was eventually used as the modern name of the entire island of Luzon. [21]

Other Languages
Deutsch: Luzon-Reich
español: Reino de Tondó
한국어: 톤도 왕국
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerajaan Tondo
italiano: Regno di Tondo
српски / srpski: Краљевство Тондо
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kraljevina Tondo