Kingdom of Tondo

Kingdom of Tondo
ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ
Kaharian ng Tondo
Personal union with Namayan through its leaders (1175–1571) [1]
before 900 CE [3] (earliest historical reference)–1589 [2]
The district of Tondo, highlighted in sepia on a Detail of the 1819 Map "Plano de la ciudad de Manila, capital de las Yslas Filipinas", prepared by Francisco Xavier de Herrera lo Grabó for the Manila Land Survey Year of 1819. The consensus among contemporary historiographers is that the location of the district during the Spanish colonial period approximates the location of the archaic polity of Tondo. [4] [5]
Capital Tondo (Now a modern district of Manila) [6]
Languages Old Tagalog, [7] Kapampangan [1]
(local languages)

Old Malay, [3] Middle Chinese
(trade languages)
Religion Hinduism, [8] Buddhism, [8] [9] Folk religion and Islam
Government Monarchy [10] ( Barangay state) [5]
Lakan
 •  c. 900 Jayadewa (first according to LCI)
 •  1515–1558[ citation needed] Rajah Salalila
 •  1558–1571 Lakandula
 •  1575–1589 Magat Salamat (last)
Historical era Iron Age
Classical antiquity
High Middle Ages
 •  Diplomacy with the Medang Kingdom [6] before 900 CE [3] (earliest historical reference)
 •  Majapahit–Luzon war 1365
 •  Diplomacy with Ming dynasty [11] 1373
 •  Annexed by Bruneian Empire 1500
 •  Last resistance against Spain [12] 1571
 •  Dissolution of the kingdom 1589 [2]
Currency Piloncitos, Gold rings, and Barter [13]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Barangay state
Sa Huỳnh culture
Prehistory of the Philippines
Kingdom of Maynila
New Spain
Spanish East Indies
Today part of   Philippines
Warning: Value specified for " continent" does not comply
Part of a series on the
Brunei
Emblem of Brunei.svg
Pre-Sultanate
Bruneian Empire
1368
to 1888
House of Bolkiah
(15th century – present)
Sultanate of Sulu
1405
to 1578
Kingdom of Maynila
1500s
to 1571
Kingdom of Tondo
1500s
to 1571
Castille War 1578
Civil War 1660–1673
Sarawak
15th century
to 1841
Labuan
15th century
to 1846
Sabah (North Borneo)
15th century
to 1865
British protectorate 1888–1984
Japanese occupation 1942–1945
Borneo campaign 1945
1945–1946
Revolt 1962

The Kingdom of Tondo ( Filipino: Kaharian ng Tondo [kɐhɐrɪˈən nɐŋ tonˈdo]; Baybayin: Pre-Kudlit:ᜎᜓᜐᜓ(Lusu), Post-Kudlit: ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ; Kapampangan: Kayarian ning Tondo; Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū; Sanskrit: तोन्दुन् (Tondu); Malay: Kerajaan Tundun), also referred to as Tundo, Tundun, Tundok, Tung-lio, or Lusung, [14] [15] is one of the major pre-Hispanic Philippine polities [4] [16] [17] ( protohistoric barangays) [18] [19] [4] north of the Pasig River, on Luzon island. [20](p71) [21] It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines' earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (900 CE).

An independent kingdom whose culture and language were influenced by trade with India, [22] China, [23] and various Southeast Asian powers, Tondo built upon its central position along ancient regional trading routes [24][ better source needed][ circular reference] throughout the archipelago to include, among others, initiating diplomatic and commercial ties with China during the Ming dynasty. Thus, it became an established force in trade throughout Southeast Asia and East Asia (see Luções).[ editorializing] Tondo's regional prominence further culminated during the period of its associated trade and alliance with Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah.[ according to whom?] And by around 1500, the kingdom reached its peak as a thalassocratic force in the northern part of the archipelago. [25][ better source needed][ circular reference]

Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila (a Spanish fort built on the remains of the Kingdom of Maynila). Tondo's absorption into the Spanish Empire effectively ended its status as an independent political entity; it now exists only as a district of the modern City of Manila.

Sources and Historiography

Primary sources

Laura Lee Junker, in her 1998 review of primary sources regarding archaic Philippine polities, lists the primary sources of information regarding the river delta polities of Maynila and Tondo as “Malay texts, Philippine oral traditions, Chinese tributary records and geographies, early Spanish writings, and archaeological evidence.” [16] Primary sources for the history of Rajah Kalamayin's Namayan, further upriver, include artifacts dug up from archaeological digs (the earliest of which was Robert Fox's [26] work for the National Museum in 1977) and Spanish colonial records (most notably those compiled by the 19th century Franciscan Historian Fray Felix Huerta). [27]

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900 CE)

Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900)

The first reference to Tondo occurs in the Philippines' oldest historical record — the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI). This legal document was written in Kawi, and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).

The first part of the document says that:

On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and her brother whose name is Bukah, the children of the Honourable Namwaran, were awarded a document of complete pardon from the King of Tundun, represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa.

The document was a sort of receipt that acknowledged that the man named Namwaran had been cleared of his debt to the King of Tundun, which in today's measure would be about 926.4 grams of gold. [3] [28]

The article mentioned that other places in the Philippines and their Rulers: Pailah (Lord Minister Jayadewa), Puliran Kasumuran (Lord Minister), Binwangan (unnamed). It has been suggested that Pailah, Puliran Kasumuran, and Binwangan are the towns of Paila, Pulilan, and Binwangan in Bulacan, but it has also been suggested that Pailah refers to the town of Pila, Laguna. More recent linguistic research of the Old Malay grammar of the document suggests the term Puliran Kasumuran refers to the large lake now known as Laguna de Ba'y (Puliran),[ citation needed] citing the root of Kasumuran, *sumur as Old Malay for well, spring or freshwater source. Hence ka-sumur-an defines a water-source (in this case the freshwater lake of Puliran itself).[ citation needed] While the document does not describe the exact relationship of the King of Tundun with these other rulers, it at least suggests that he was of higher rank. [29][ better source needed]

Ming Dynasty court records (c. 1300s)

The next historical reference to Ancient Tondo can be found in the Ming Shilu Annals (明实录]), [10] which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty (大明朝) in 1373. [10] Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo ( Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū) were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings ( ). [30] This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals[ contentious label] of the Philippine archipelago.

Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including what is now the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands. [31] But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song dynasties. [32] [33]

Firsthand Spanish accounts (relaciones) (1521 – late 1500s)

Events that took place in the Pasig river delta in the 1500s are documented in some of the firsthand epistolary accounts ("relaciones") written by the Spanish. [34] [5]

Most of these describe events that took place after 1571–72, when forces under the command of Martín de Goiti, and later Miguel de Legazpi himself, arrived in Manila Bay. These are described in the numerous accounts of the Legazpi expedition, including those by the expedition's designated notary Hernando de Riquel, by Legazpi's successor Guido de Lavezaris, and by Legazpi himself. [5]

However, there are also some references to Maynila, Luzon, and Tondo [5] in the accounts of the Magellan expedition in 1521, which, under the command of Sebastian Elcano, had captured a commander of naval forces for the Sultan of Brunei, whom scholars [5] [34] now identify as Prince Ache, who would later become Rajah Matanda. [5] [34] These events, and the details Ache's interrogation, [5] were recorded in accounts of Magellan and Elcano's men, including expedition members Rodrigo de Aganduru Moriz, [35] Gines de Mafra, and the expedition's scribe Antonio Pigafetta. [36]

Many of these relaciones were later published in compilations in Spain, [5] and some were eventually translated and compiled into the multi-volume collection " The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898" by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson. [5]

Early Tagalog dictionaries and grammar books (late 1500s – early 1600s)

In addition to the extensive descriptions contained in the firsthand accounts of the Spanish expeditions, much [5] of what is now known about precolonial Tagalog culture, religion, and language are derived from early Tagalog dictionaries and grammar books, such as Fray San Buenaventura's 1613 " Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala" and Fray Francisco Blancas de San José's 1610 "Arte de la lengua tagala." Scott notes that while the relaciones spoke much about the Tagalogs' religion because it was the concern of the Spanish missionaries, and of their political and martial organization because it was the concern of the Spanish bureaucrats, [5] these dictionaries and grammar books are rich sources of information regarding the Tagalogs' material and ephemeral culture. [5]

Genealogical sources

Historical documents containing genealogical information regarding the rulers of Tondo during and immediately after the arrival of the Spanish fleet in the early 1570s mostly consist of notarized Spanish documents [34] executed by the direct descendants of rulers such as (Bunao) Lakan Dula of Tondo; Rajah Matanda (Ache) and Rajah Sulayman of Maynila; and Rajah Calamayin of Namayan. [34] In addition to firsthand accounts of the executors' immediate descendants and relatives, some (although not all) of these genealogical documents include information from family oral traditions, connecting the document's subjects to local legendary figures. [34] Several of these notarized Spanish documents are kept by the National Archives and are labeled the "Lakandula documents." [34]

Scott, in his seminal 1984 work "Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History", identifies a number of "quasi-historical" genealogical sources, which are not physically historical, but which contain genealogical information which claims to date back to early historic times. [37] These include the Sulu and Maguindanao Tarsilas, and the Batu Tarsila of Brunei. [37]

Critical historiography

Junker notes that most of the primary written sources have inherent biases, which creates a need to counter-check their narratives with one another, and with empirical archeological evidence. [16] She adds that not "surprisingly little work" on the critical historiography of early Philippine societies has been done, and cited the works of F. Landa Jocano, Felix M. Keesing, and William Henry Scott as notable exceptions. [16]

Other Languages
Deutsch: Luzon-Reich
español: Reino de Tondó
한국어: 톤도 왕국
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerajaan Tondo
italiano: Regno di Tondo
српски / srpski: Краљевство Тондо
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kraljevina Tondo