Kingdom of Sardinia

Kingdom of Sardinia
Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae[1]
Regne de Sardenya
Reino de Cerdeña
Royaume de Sardaigne
Regno di Sardegna
1324–1861
Flag of Sardinia
Flag of the Savoyard Kingdom
Coat of arms (c. 1831)
Anthem: 
S'hymnu sardu nationale
"The Sardinian national anthem"
Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1815: the Mainland states (Piedmont, Savoy, Nice) and Sardinia in the inset.
Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1815: the Mainland states (Piedmont, Savoy, Nice) and Sardinia in the inset.
CapitalCagliari
(1324–1720, 1798–1814)
Turin
(1720–1798, 1814–1861)
Common languagesDuring the Iberian period:
Sardinian, Corsican, Catalan and Spanish;[2]
During the Savoyard period:
Also Italian (in Sardinia from 1760 onwards[3][4][5][6]), French, Piedmontese, Ligurian, Occitan and Arpitan
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
(1324–1849)
Parliamentary constitutional monarchy
(1849–1861)
King 
• 1324–1327
James II of Aragon (first)
• 1849–1861
Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy (last)
Prime Minister 
• 1848
Cesare Balbo (first)
• 1860–1861
Camillo Benso (last)
LegislatureParliament
Subalpine Senate
Chamber of Deputies
History 
1297
1324
1714
1720
1848
• Loss of Savoy and Nice
1860
• Becomes the new Kingdom of Italy
1861
Area
185973,810 km2 (28,500 sq mi)
CurrencyCagliarese (to 1813)
Sardinian scudo (to 1816)
Piedmontese scudo (to 1816)
French franc (1800–14)
Sardinian lira (1816–61)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Giudicato of Arborea
Republic of Pisa
Sassari
Duchy of Savoy
Kingdom of Italy
Second French Empire
Today part of France
 Italy
 Monaco

The Kingdom of Sardinia[nb 1] was a state in Southern Europe which existed from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. It was the predecessor state of the Kingdom of Italy.[7]

When it was acquired by the Duke of Savoy in 1720, it was a former Iberian state with weak institutions. However, the Savoyards united it with their possessions on the Italian mainland and, by the time of the Crimean War in 1853, had built the resulting kingdom into a strong power. The composite state under the rule of Savoy in this period may be called Savoy-Sardinia or Piedmont-Sardinia, or even the Kingdom of Piedmont to emphasise that the island of Sardinia was of secondary importance to the monarchy.[8] The formal name of the entire Savoyard state was the "States of His Majesty the King of Sardinia".[9] Its final capital was Turin, the capital of Savoy since the Middle Ages.

The kingdom initially consisted of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, sovereignty over both of which was claimed by the Papacy, which granted them as a fief, the regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae ("kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica"), to King James II of Aragon in 1297. Beginning in 1324, James and his successors conquered the island of Sardinia and established de facto their de jure authority. In 1420, after the Sardinian-Catalan War, the last competing claim to the island was bought out. After the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, Sardinia became a part of the burgeoning Spanish Empire. In 1720 it was ceded by the Habsburg and Bourbon claimants to the Spanish throne to Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. The Kingdom of Sardinia came to be progressively identified with the states ruled by the main branch of the House of Savoy, which included, besides Savoy and Aosta, dynastic possessions since the 11th century, the Principality of Piedmont (a possession built up in the 13th century), and the County of Nice (a possession since 1388). While in theory the traditional capital of the island of Sardinia and seat of its viceroys was Cagliari, the Piedmontese city of Turin was the de facto capital of Savoy.

When the mainland domains of the House of Savoy were occupied and eventually annexed by Napoleonic France, the king of Sardinia made his permanent residence on the island for the first time in its history. The Congress of Vienna (1814–15), which restructured Europe after Napoleon's defeat, returned to Savoy its mainland possessions and augmented them with Liguria, taken from the Republic of Genoa. In 1847–48, in a "perfect fusion", the various Savoyard states were unified under one legal system, with the capital in Turin, and granted a constitution, the Statuto Albertino. There followed the annexation of Lombardy (1859), the central Italian states and the Two Sicilies (1860), Venetia (1866), and the Papal States (1870). On 17 March 1861, to more accurately reflect its new geographic extent, the Kingdom of Sardinia changed its name to the Kingdom of Italy, and its capital was eventually moved first to Florence and then to Rome.

Early history

In 238 BC Sardinia became, along with Corsica, a province of the Roman Empire. The Romans ruled the island until the middle of the 5th century, when it was occupied by the Vandals, who had also settled in north Africa. In 534 AD it was reconquered by the Romans, but now from the Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium. It remained a Byzantine province until the Arab conquest of Sicily in the 9th century. After that, communications with Constantinople became very difficult, and powerful families of the island assumed control of the land.

Facing Arab attempts to sack and conquer, while having almost no outside help, Sardinia utilized the principle of translatio imperii ("transfer of rule") and continued to organize itself along the ancient Roman and Byzantine model. The island was not the personal property of the ruler and of his family, as was then the dominant practice in western Europe, but rather a separate entity and during the Byzantine Empire, a monarchical republic, as it had been since Roman times.

Starting from 705–706, Saracens from north Africa (recently conquered by Arab armies) harassed the population of the coastal cities. Information about the Sardinian political situation in the following centuries is scarce. Due to Saracen attacks, in the 9th century Tharros was abandoned in favor of Oristano, after more than 1800 years of occupation; Caralis, Porto Torres and numerous other coastal centres suffered the same fate. There is a record of another massive Saracen sea attack in 1015–16 from the Balearics, commanded by Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī (Latinized as Museto). The Saracen attempt to invade the island was stopped by the Judicatus with the support of the fleets of the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa, free cities of the Holy Roman Empire. Pope Benedict VIII also requested aid from the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa in the struggle against the Arabs.[10]

After the Great Schism, Rome made many efforts to restore Latinity to the Sardinian church, politics and society, and to finally reunify the island under one Catholic ruler, as it had been for all of southern Italy, when the Byzantines had been driven away by Catholic Normans. Even the title of Judices was a Byzantine reminder of the Greek church and state[citation needed], in times of harsh relations between eastern and western churches (Massacre of the Latins, 1182, Siege of Constantinople (1204), Recapture of Constantinople, 1261).

Before the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica, the Archons (ἄρχοντες) or, in Latin, judices,[11][12] who reigned in the island from the 9th or 10th century until the beginning of the 11th century, can be considered as real kings of all Sardinia (Κύριε βοήθε ιοῦ δού λού σου Tουρκοτουρίου ἅρχωντοσ Σαρδινίας καί τής δού ληςσου Γετιτ[13]),[14][15] even though nominal vassals of the Byzantine emperors. Of these sovereigns only two names are known: Turcoturiu and Salusiu (Tουρκοτουριου βασιλικου προτοσπαθαριου [16] και Σαλουσιου των ευγενεστατων άρχωντων),[17][18] who probably ruled in the 10th century. The Archons still wrote in Greek or Latin, but one of the oldest documents left of the Judgedom of Cagliari (the so-called Carta Volgare), issued by Torchitorio I de Lacon-Gunale in 1070, was already written in the Romance Sardinian language, albeit with the Greek alphabet.[19]

The realm was divided into four small kingdoms, the Judicati, perfectly organized as was the previous realm, but was now under the influence of the Pope and the Holy Roman Empire. That was the cause of conflicts leading to a long war between the Judices, who regarded themselves as kings fighting against rebellious nobles.[20] The Judicati came to an end in 1410, when the new Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica defeated the Arborea Judicatus in a battle in Sanluri and its sovereign rights were sold by the last Judex.

Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia at the funeral ceremony of Charles V

Later, the title of King of Sardinia was granted by the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire to Barisone II of Arborea[21] and Enzio of Sardinia. The first could not reunify the island under his rule, despite years of war against the other Sardinian judices, and he finally concluded a peace treaty with them in 1172.[22] The second did not have the opportunity. Invested with the title from his father, Emperor Frederick II in 1239, he was soon recalled by his parent and appointed Imperial Vicar for Italy. He died in 1272 without direct recognized heirs after a detention of 23 years in a prison in Bologna.

The Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica (later, just the "Kingdom of Sardinia" from 1460[23]) was a state whose king was the King of Aragon, who started to conquer it in 1324, gained full control in 1410, and directly ruled it until 1460. In that year it was incorporated into a sort of confederation of states, each with its own institutions, called the Crown of Aragon, and united only in the person of the king. The Crown of Aragon was made by a council of representatives of the various states and grew in importance for the main purpose of separating the legacy of Ferdinand II of Aragon from that of Isabella I of Castile when they married in 1469. The idea of the kingdom was created in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII, as a hypothetical entity created for James II of Aragon under a secret clause in the Treaty of Anagni. This was an inducement to join in the effort to restore Sicily, then under the rule of James's brother Frederick III of Sicily, to the Angevin dynasty over the oppositions of the Sicilians. The two islands proposed for this new kingdom were occupied by other states and fiefs at the time. In Sardinia, three of the four states that had succeeded Byzantine imperial rule in the 9th century had passed through marriage and partition under the direct or indirect control of Pisa and Genoa in the 40 years preceding the Anagni treaty. Genoa had also ruled Corsica since conquering the island nearly two centuries before (c. 1133).

There were other reasons beside this papal decision: it was the final successful result of the long fight against the Ghibelline (pro-imperial) city of Pisa and the Holy Roman Empire itself. Furthermore, Sardinia was then under the control of the very Catholic Kings of Aragon, and the last result of rapprochement of the island to Rome. The Sardinian church had never been under the control of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople; it was an autonomous province loyal to Rome and belonging to the Latin Church, but during the Byzantine period became influenced by Byzantine liturgy and culture.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Sardegna Ông-kok
Esperanto: Regno de Sardio
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerajaan Sardinia
Bahasa Melayu: Kerajaan Sardinia
norsk nynorsk: Kongedømet Sardinia
Piemontèis: Regn ëd Sardëgna
português: Reino da Sardenha
Simple English: Kingdom of Sardinia
slovenščina: Kraljevina Sardinija
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kraljevina Sardinija
Tiếng Việt: Vương quốc Sardegna
文言: 撒丁王國
吴语: 撒丁王国
粵語: 撒丁王國