Kefaya

Kefaya
كفاية
الحركة المصرية من أجل التغيير
Kifaya.png
Founded2004
TypePressure group
Political group
FocusLiberal democracy
Social justice
Free and fair election
Area served
 Egypt
Key people
Abdelgelil Mostafa[1]
WebsiteKefaya Website

Kefaya (Egyptian Arabic: كفايةkefāya, IPA: [keˈfæːjæ], "enough") is the unofficial moniker of the Egyptian Movement for Change (Arabic: الحركة المصرية من أجل التغييرel-Haraka el-Masreyya men agl el-Taghyeer), a grassroots coalition which prior to the 2011 revolution drew its support from across Egypt's political spectrum. It was a platform for protest against Hosni Mubarak's presidency and the possibility he might seek to transfer power directly to his son Gamal; political corruption and stagnation; "the blurring of the lines between power and wealth; and the regime's cruelty, coercion and disregard for human rights."[2]

While it first came to public attention in the summer of 2004, and achieved a much greater profile during the 2005 constitutional referendum and presidential election campaigns, it subsequently lost momentum, suffering from internal dissent, leadership change, and a more general frustration at the apparent inability of Egypt's political opposition to force the pace of reform.

Origins

While Kefaya first emerged in 2004, its origins can be found in earlier strands of political protest, beginning with the solidarity committees that spread throughout Egypt following the start of the Second Intifada in October 2000.[3] The pro-Intifada demonstrations were particularly notable as they involved a new generation of previously non-politicised youth and, as a direct consequence, resulted in a revival of Egyptian street politics.[citation needed]

Following the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003, these protesters formed the backbone of Egypt's highly vocal anti-war movement,[4] and their protests in turn developed into the first public demonstrations against President Mubarak since he had taken office.[5] The anti-war protest of 20 March 2003 – from which the anti-war movement 20 March derived its name – was one of the biggest spontaneous demonstrations in Egypt's history.[6]

The evolution of this protest movement into Kefaya occurred during the summer of 2004. Speculation, fuelled by state-controlled media, had been mounting that major changes in top-level political personnel were to be announced. The much-anticipated cabinet reshuffle in July resulted in only cosmetic changes, however, and saw the installation of a number of supporters of the President's son, Gamal Mubarak, in important government posts.[7]

Fearing a hereditary transfer of power similar to that which had occurred in Syria, opposition activists and intellectuals were galvanised into action. In August, a petition was circulated which demanded fundamental constitutional and economic reforms, but most importantly direct presidential elections with competing candidates.[7] The 300 signatories of what became Kefaya's founding declaration called for "democracy and reform to take root in Egypt."[8] Then in October 2004, Tarek El-Bishry, one of Egypt's most respected judges, presented what soon came to be regarded as the movement's first manifesto in which he exhorted his fellow citizens to "withdraw their long-abused consent to be governed" – in effect, a call for civil disobedience.[7]

Kefaya's first rally, held on 12 December, was an historic event, being the first occasion a protest had been organised solely to demand that the President step down. Surrounded by riot police, between 500 and 1,000 activists gathered on the steps of the High Court in Cairo. They "remained mostly silent and taped over their mouths a large yellow sticker emblazoned with 'Kefaya'."[7]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Kifayə hərəkatı
català: Kifaya
Deutsch: Kifaya
español: Kifaya
Esperanto: Kifaja
français: Kifaya
italiano: Kifaya
עברית: כפאיה
Nederlands: Kefaya
norsk: Kifaya
suomi: Kefaya