State of Kansas
Flag of KansasState seal of Kansas
Nickname(s): The Sunflower State (official);
The Wheat State;
The Free State[1]
Motto(s): Ad astra per aspera (Latin for To the stars through difficulties)
State song(s): "Home on the Range"
Map of the United States with Kansas highlighted
Official languageEnglish[2]
Largest cityWichita
Largest metroGreater Kansas City
AreaRanked 15th
 • Total82,278[3] sq mi
(213,100 km2)
 • Width410[4] miles (660 km)
 • Length213[4] miles (343 km)
 • % water0.6[5]
 • Latitude37° N to 40° N
 • Longitude94° 35′ W to 102° 3′ W
PopulationRanked 35th
 • Total2,913,123 (2017 est.)[6]
 • Density35.1/sq mi  (13.5/km2)
Ranked 40th
 • Median household income$54,865[7] (30th)
 • Highest pointMount Sunflower[8][9]
4,041 ft (1232 m)
 • Mean2,000 ft  (610 m)
 • Lowest pointVerdigris River at Oklahoma border[8][9]
679 ft (207 m)
Before statehoodKansas Territory
Admission to UnionJanuary 29, 1861
Kansas Day (34th)
GovernorJeff Colyer (R)
Lieutenant GovernorTracey Mann (R)
LegislatureKansas Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsPat Roberts (R)
Jerry Moran (R)
U.S. House delegationRoger Marshall (R)
Lynn Jenkins (R)
Kevin Yoder (R)
Ron Estes (R) (list)
Time zones 
 • Majority of stateCentral: UTC −6/−5
 • Greeley, Hamilton, Sherman, and Wallace countiesMountain: UTC −7/−6
AbbreviationsKS, Kan., Kans.
Kansas state symbols
Flag of Kansas.svg
Seal of Kansas.svg
Living insignia
AmphibianBarred tiger salamander
BirdWestern meadowlark
FlowerWild sunflower
GrassLittle bluestem
InsectWestern honey bee
MammalAmerican bison
ReptileOrnate box turtle
TreePlains cottonwood
Inanimate insignia
MottoAd astra per aspera (Latin for To the stars through difficulties)
SoilHarney silt loam (unofficial)
Song"Home on the Range"
State route marker
Kansas state route marker
State quarter
Kansas quarter dollar coin
Released in 2005
Lists of United States state symbols

Kansas s/ (About this sound listen) is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.[10] Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area.[11] The tribe's name (natively kką:ze) is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although this was probably not the term's original meaning.[12][13] For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison.

Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1812, in what is now Bonner Springs,[14] but the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery issue. When it was officially opened to settlement by the U.S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, and was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, and on January 29, 1861,[15][16] Kansas entered the Union as a free state. After the Civil War, the population of Kansas grew rapidly when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into farmland.

By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn, sorghum, and soybeans.[17] Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles (213,100 square kilometers) is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,641. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet (1,232 meters).


Samuel Seymour's 1819 illustration of a Kansa lodge and dance is the oldest drawing known to be done in Kansas.

For a millennium, the land that is currently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, however, was still a part of Spain, Mexico, and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States. From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today.

In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state. The Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, and opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo.

Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border. These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.

Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had largely subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people. He was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record.[18]

After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans also looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters.

At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas. Wild Bill Hickok was a deputy marshal at Fort Riley and a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, and both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns."

In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U.S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, which was only repealed in 1948.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kansas
አማርኛ: ካንሳስ
Ænglisc: Kansas
العربية: كانساس
aragonés: Kansas
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܟܐܢܣܐܣ
arpetan: Kansas
asturianu: Kansas
Avañe'ẽ: Kansas
Aymar aru: Kansas suyu
azərbaycanca: Kanzas
Bân-lâm-gú: Kansas
башҡортса: Канзас
беларуская: Канзас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Канзас
भोजपुरी: कंसास
Bikol Central: Kansas
Bislama: Kansas
български: Канзас
Boarisch: Kansas
བོད་ཡིག: ཁན་སཱ་སི།
bosanski: Kansas
brezhoneg: Kansas
буряад: Канзас
català: Kansas
Чӑвашла: Канзас
Cebuano: Kansas
čeština: Kansas
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Kansas
corsu: Kansas
Cymraeg: Kansas
dansk: Kansas
davvisámegiella: Kansas
Deutsch: Kansas
eesti: Kansas
Ελληνικά: Κάνσας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Kànsas
español: Kansas
Esperanto: Kansaso
euskara: Kansas
فارسی: کانزاس
Fiji Hindi: Kansas
føroyskt: Kansas
français: Kansas
Frysk: Kansas
Gaeilge: Kansas
Gaelg: Kansas
Gagauz: Kansas
Gàidhlig: Kansas
galego: Kansas
ગુજરાતી: કેન્સાસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kansas
хальмг: Канзас
한국어: 캔자스 주
Hawaiʻi: Kanekaka
Հայերեն: Կանզաս
हिन्दी: केन्सास
hornjoserbsce: Kansas
hrvatski: Kansas
Ido: Kansas
Igbo: Kánzạs
Ilokano: Kansas
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ক্যানসাস
Bahasa Indonesia: Kansas
interlingua: Kansas
Interlingue: Kansas
Iñupiak: Kansas
Ирон: Канзас
íslenska: Kansas
italiano: Kansas
עברית: קנזס
Basa Jawa: Kansas
Kapampangan: Kansas
ქართული: კანზასი
қазақша: Канзас
kernowek: Kansas
Kiswahili: Kansas
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kannzas
kurdî: Kansas
кырык мары: Канзас
Ladino: Kansas
لۊری شومالی: کانزاس
Latina: Kansia
latviešu: Kanzasa
Lëtzebuergesch: Kansas
lietuvių: Kanzasas
Ligure: Kansas
Limburgs: Kansas
la .lojban.: kanzys
lumbaart: Kansas
magyar: Kansas
मैथिली: कन्सास
македонски: Канзас
Malagasy: Kansas
മലയാളം: കാൻസസ്
Māori: Kansas
मराठी: कॅन्सस
მარგალური: კანზასი
مصرى: كانساس
مازِرونی: کانزاس
Bahasa Melayu: Kansas
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Kansas
монгол: Канзас
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကန်းဆပ်ပြည်နယ်
Nāhuatl: Kansas
Dorerin Naoero: Kansas
Nederlands: Kansas (staat)
Nedersaksies: Kansas
नेपाली: कन्सास
नेपाल भाषा: कान्सास
日本語: カンザス州
нохчийн: Канзас
Nordfriisk: Kansas
norsk: Kansas
norsk nynorsk: Kansas
occitan: Kansas
олык марий: Канзас
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kanzas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਾਂਸਸ
پنجابی: کنساس
Papiamentu: Kansas
Piemontèis: Kansas
Plattdüütsch: Kansas
polski: Kansas
português: Kansas
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kanzas (shtat)
română: Kansas
rumantsch: Kansas
Runa Simi: Kansas suyu
русский: Канзас
саха тыла: Канзас
संस्कृतम्: केन्‍सास
sardu: Kansas
Scots: Kansas
Seeltersk: Kansas
shqip: Kanzas
sicilianu: Kansas
Simple English: Kansas
slovenčina: Kansas (štát USA)
slovenščina: Kansas
ślůnski: Kansas
کوردی: کانزاس
српски / srpski: Канзас
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kanzas
suomi: Kansas
svenska: Kansas
Tagalog: Kansas
தமிழ்: கேன்சஸ்
Taqbaylit: Kansas
татарча/tatarça: Канзас
తెలుగు: కాన్సాస్
тоҷикӣ: Канзас
Tsetsêhestâhese: Kansas
Türkçe: Kansas
українська: Канзас
اردو: کنساس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Kanzas Shitati
Tiếng Việt: Kansas
Volapük: Kansas
文言: 堪薩斯州
Winaray: Kansas
ייִדיש: קענזעס
Yorùbá: Kansas
粵語: 干沙州
Zazaki: Kansas
žemaitėška: Kanzasos
中文: 堪薩斯州
Kabɩyɛ: Kanzasii
Lingua Franca Nova: Kansas