Jupiter

Jupiter Astronomical symbol of Jupiter
Jupiter and its shrunken Great Red Spot.jpg
Full-disc view of Jupiter in natural color in April 2014 [a]
Designations
Pronunciation ər/ [1]
Adjectives Jovian
Orbital characteristics [5]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 816.62 million km (5.4588 AU)
Perihelion 740.52 million km (4.9501 AU)
778.57 million km (5.2044 AU)
Eccentricity 0.0489
  • 11.862  yr
  • 4,332.59 d
  • 10,475.8 Jovian solar days [2]
398.88 d
13.07 km/s (8.12 mi/s)
20.020° [3]
Inclination
100.464°
273.867° [3]
Known satellites 69 (as of 2017)
Physical characteristics [5]
Mean radius
69,911 km (43,441 mi) [b]
Equatorial radius
  • 71,492 km (44,423 mi) [b]
  • 11.209 Earths
Polar radius
  • 66,854 km (41,541 mi) [b]
  • 10.517 Earths
Flattening 0.06487
  • 6.1419×1010 km2 (2.3714×1010 sq mi) [b] [6]
  • 121.9 Earths
Volume
  • 1.4313×1015 km3 (3.434×1014 cu mi) [b]
  • 1,321 Earths
Mass
  • 1.8982×1027 kg (4.1848×1027 lb)
  • 317.8 Earths
  • 1/1047 Sun [7]
Mean density
1,326  kg/m3 (2,235  lb/cu yd) [c]
24.79  m/s2 (81.3  ft/s2) [b]
2.528  g
0.254 I/MR2 (estimate)
59.5 km/s (37.0 mi/s) [b]
9.925 hours [8] (9 h 55 m 30 s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
12.6 km/s (7.8 mi/s; 45,000 km/h)
3.13° (to orbit)
North pole right ascension
268.057°; 17h 52m 14s
North pole declination
64.495°
Albedo 0.343 ( Bond)
0.538 ( geometric)
Surface temp. min mean max
1 bar level 165  K (−108  °C)
0.1 bar 112  K (−161  °C)
−1.6 to −2.94
29.8″ to 50.1″
Atmosphere [5]
Surface pressure
20–200  kPa [9]; 70 kPa [10]
27 km (17 mi)
Composition by volume

by volume:

89.8±2.0% hydrogen (H2)
10.2±2.0% helium (He)
0.3±0.1% methane (CH4)
0.026±0.004% ammonia (NH3)
0.0028±0.001% hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0.0006±0.0002% ethane (C2H6)
0.0004±0.0004% water (H2O)

Ices:

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants; the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune are ice giants. Jupiter has been known to astronomers since antiquity. [11] The Romans named it after their god Jupiter. [12] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows, [13] and making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements, [14] but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has at least 69 moons, [15] including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.

Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. In late February 2007, Jupiter was visited by the New Horizons probe, which used Jupiter's gravity to increase its speed and bend its trajectory en route to Pluto. The latest probe to visit the planet is Juno, which entered into orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016. [16] [17] Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa.

Formation and migration

Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun. As Jupiter came toward the inner Solar System, in what theorists call the Grand Tack Hypothesis, gravitational tugs and pulls occurred causing a series of collisions between the super-Earths as their orbits began to overlap. [18]

Astronomers have discovered nearly 500 planetary systems with multiple planets. Regularly these systems include a few planets with masses several times greater than Earth's (super-Earths), orbiting closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun, and sometimes also Jupiter-mass gas giants close to their star.

Jupiter moving out of the inner Solar System would have allowed the formation of inner planets, including Earth. [19]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Jupiter (Planet)
አማርኛ: ጁፒተር
Ænglisc: Þunor (tungol)
العربية: المشتري
armãneashti: Jupiter
Avañe'ẽ: Húpiter
azərbaycanca: Yupiter (planet)
تۆرکجه: موشتری
Bahasa Banjar: Jupiter
Bân-lâm-gú: Bo̍k-chheⁿ
башҡортса: Юпитер
беларуская: Юпітэр (планета)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Юпітэр
български: Юпитер (планета)
བོད་ཡིག: ཕུར་བུ།
bosanski: Jupiter
brezhoneg: Yaou (planedenn)
Cymraeg: Iau (planed)
Diné bizaad: Jíbitoo
eesti: Jupiter
Ελληνικά: Δίας (πλανήτης)
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Zòbia
estremeñu: Júpiti (praneta)
euskara: Jupiter
Fiji Hindi: Brahaspati
føroyskt: Jupiter
Frysk: Jupiter
Gaelg: Iupiter
Gàidhlig: Am Bliogh
galego: Xúpiter
贛語: 木星
Gĩkũyũ: Jupita
ગુજરાતી: ગુરુ (ગ્રહ)
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Muk-sên
한국어: 목성
Hawaiʻi: Ka‘āwela
hornjoserbsce: Jupiter
hrvatski: Jupiter
Ilokano: Hupiter
Bahasa Indonesia: Yupiter
interlingua: Jupiter (planeta)
isiZulu: UNdonsakusa
Basa Jawa: Yupiter
Kapampangan: Jupiter
ქართული: იუპიტერი
kaszëbsczi: Jupiter
қазақша: Юпитер
kernowek: Yow (planet)
Kiswahili: Mshtarii
коми: Юпитер
Kongo: Sumbula
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jipitè (planèt)
Kurdî: Berçîs
Кыргызча: Юпитер
лезги: Юпитер
Lëtzebuergesch: Jupiter (Planéit)
Livvinkarjala: Jupiter
la .lojban.: iupiter
lumbaart: Giove (pianeta)
magyar: Jupiter
македонски: Јупитер
മലയാളം: വ്യാഴം
मराठी: गुरू ग्रह
მარგალური: დია (პლანეტა)
مصرى: المشترى
مازِرونی: مشتری
Bahasa Melayu: Musytari
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mŭk-sĭng
монгол: Бархасбадь
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကြာသပတေးဂြိုဟ်
Nederlands: Jupiter (planeet)
Nedersaksies: Jupiter (planeet)
नेपाल भाषा: वृहस्पति ग्रह
日本語: 木星
Napulitano: Giove
нохчийн: Юпитер
Nordfriisk: Jupiter
norsk: Jupiter
norsk nynorsk: Planeten Jupiter
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବୃହସ୍ପତି
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yupiter
Pälzisch: Jupiter (Planet)
پنجابی: مشتری
پښتو: مشتري
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភពព្រហស្បតិ៍
Piemontèis: Gieuv (pianeta)
Plattdüütsch: Jupiter (Planet)
polski: Jowisz
português: Júpiter (planeta)
română: Jupiter
rumantsch: Jupiter (planet)
Runa Simi: Pirwa
русиньскый: Юпітер (планета)
русский: Юпитер
саха тыла: Юпитер
davvisámegiella: Jupiter
संस्कृतम्: गुरुग्रहः
sardu: Jove
Scots: Jupiter
Seeltersk: Jupiter
shqip: Jupiteri
sicilianu: Giovi (pianeta)
Simple English: Jupiter
سنڌي: مشتري
slovenčina: Jupiter
slovenščina: Jupiter
ślůnski: Jowisz
Soomaaliga: Cirjeex
کوردی: ھورمز
српски / srpski: Јупитер
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jupiter
Basa Sunda: Jupiter
suomi: Jupiter
svenska: Jupiter
татарча/tatarça: Юпитер (планета)
తెలుగు: గురుడు
тоҷикӣ: Муштарӣ
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏧᏈᏓ
Türkçe: Jüpiter
Türkmençe: Ýupiter
тыва дыл: Юпитер
українська: Юпітер (планета)
اردو: مشتری
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: يۇپىتېر
Vahcuengh: Ndaundeiqfaex
vepsän kel’: Jupiter (planet)
Tiếng Việt: Sao Mộc
Volapük: Yupiter
文言: 歲星
West-Vlams: Jupiter (planete)
Winaray: Hupiter
Wolof: Yupiter
吴语: 木星
ייִדיש: יופיטער
Yorùbá: Júpítérì
粵語: 木星
Zazaki: Jupiter
žemaitėška: Jopėteris (planeta)
中文: 木星