Jukebox

A Zodiac jukebox
The jukebox when opened
The internal workings of the jukebox
Reproduction Wurlitzer 1015 (manufactured 1946 [1]) in the Hotel Nacional de Cuba, Havana
Seeburg Wall-o-Matic tableside extension, at Triple XXX, Issaquah, Washington, 2009
Filben Maestro 78RPM jukebox (late 1940s)
Seeburg Select-o-matic (1949)

A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that will play a patron's selection from self-contained media. The classic jukebox has buttons with letters and numbers on them that, when entered in combination, are used to play a specific selection.

History

Coin-operated music boxes and player pianos were the first forms of automated coin-operated musical devices. These instruments used paper rolls, metal disks, or metal cylinders to play a musical selection on the instrument, or instruments, enclosed within the device. In the 1890s these devices were joined by machines which used actual recordings instead of physical instruments. [2] [3] In 1890, Louis Glass and William S. Arnold invented the nickel-in-the-slot phonograph, the first of which was an Edison Class M Electric Phonograph retrofitted with a device patented under the name of Coin Actuated Attachment for Phonograph. The music was heard via one of four listening tubes. [4]

Early designs, upon receiving a coin, unlocked the mechanism, allowing the listener to turn a crank that simultaneously wound the spring motor and placed the reproducer's stylus in the starting groove. Frequently, exhibitors would equip many of these machines with listening tubes (acoustic headphones) and array them in "phonograph parlors", allowing the patron to select between multiple records, each played on its own machine. Some machines even contained carousels and other mechanisms for playing multiple records. Most machines were capable of holding only one musical selection, the automation coming from the ability to play that one selection at will. In 1918 Hobart C. Niblack patented an apparatus that automatically changed records, leading to one of the first selective jukeboxes being introduced in 1927 by the Automated Musical Instrument Company, later known as AMI.

In 1928, Justus P. Seeburg, who was manufacturing player pianos, combined an electrostatic loudspeaker with a record player that was coin-operated, and gave the listener a choice of eight records. [5] This Audiophone machine was wide and bulky, and had eight separate turntables mounted on a rotating Ferris wheel-like device, allowing patrons to select from eight different records. Later versions of the jukebox included Seeburg's Selectophone, with 10 turntables mounted vertically on a spindle. By maneuvering the tone arm up and down, the customer could select from 10 different records. [4]

Greater levels of automation were gradually introduced. As electrical recording and amplification improved there was increased demand for coin-operated phonographs.

The term jukebox came into use in the United States beginning in 1940, apparently derived from the familiar usage " juke joint", derived from the Gullah word "juke" or "joog" meaning disorderly, rowdy, or wicked. [6] As it applies to the 'use of a jukebox', the terms juking ( v.) and juker ( n.) are the correct expressions.

Song-popularity counters told the owner of the machine the number of times each record was played (A and B side were generally not distinguished), with the result that popular records remained, while lesser-played songs could be replaced.

Wallboxes were an important, and profitable, part of any jukebox installation. Serving as a remote control, they enabled patrons to select tunes from their table or booth. One example is the Seeburg 3W1, introduced in 1949 as companion to the 100-selection Model M100A jukebox. Stereo sound became popular in the early 1960s, and wallboxes of the era were designed with built-in speakers to provide patrons a sample of this latest technology.

Initially playing music recorded on wax cylinders, the shellac 78 rpm record dominated jukeboxes in the early part of the 20th century. The Seeburg Corporation introduced an all 45 rpm vinyl record jukebox in 1950; since the 45s were smaller and lighter, they soon became the dominant jukebox media for the last half of the 20th century. 33⅓-R.P.M., C.D.s, and videos on DVDs were all introduced and used in the last decades of the century. MP3 downloads, and Internet-connected media players came in at the start of the 21st century. The jukebox's history has followed the wave of technological improvements in music reproduction and distribution. With its large speaker size, facilitating low-frequency (rhythm) reproduction, and large amplifier, the jukebox played sound with higher quality and volume than the listener could in his or her home, sometimes music with a "beat".

Jukeboxes were most popular from the 1940s through the mid-1960s, particularly during the 1950s. By the middle of the 1940s, three-quarters of the records produced in America went into jukeboxes. [7] While often associated with early rock and roll music, their popularity extends back much earlier, including classical music, opera and the swing music era. In 1977, The Kinks recorded a song called "Jukebox Music" for their album Sleepwalker.

Styling progressed from the plain wooden boxes in the early thirties to beautiful light shows with marbelized plastic and color animation in the Wurlitzer 850 Peacock of 1941. But after the United States entered the war, metal and plastic were needed for the war effort. Jukeboxes were considered "nonessential", and none were produced until 1946. The 1942 Wurlitzer 950 featured wooden coin chutes to save on metal. At the end of the war, in 1946, jukebox production resumed and several "new" companies joined the fray. Jukeboxes started to offer visual attractions: bubbles, waves, circles of changing color which came on when a sound was played.

Models designed and produced in the late 20th century needed more panel space for the increased number of record titles they needed to present for selection, reducing the space available for decoration, leading to less ornate styling in favor of functionality and less maintenance.

Many manufacturers produced jukeboxes, including 1890s Wurlitzer, 1920s Seeburg, 1930s " Rock-Ola" whose name is actually based on that of the company founder, David Cullen Rockola, Sound Leisure and Crosley.

Two companies still remain today in the manufacture of classically styled jukeboxes. Rockola based in California and Sound Leisure based in Leeds in the UK. Both companies manufacture jukeboxes based on a CD playing mechanism however in April 2016 Sound Leisure showed a prototype of the "Vinyl Rocket" at the UK Classic Car Show. It stated that it would start production of the 140 7" vinyl selector (70records) in summer of the same year. [8] [9]

Other Languages
català: Jukebox
čeština: Jukebox
dansk: Jukeboks
Deutsch: Jukebox
Ελληνικά: Jukebox
español: Jukebox
Esperanto: Diskogurdo
فارسی: جوک‌باکس
français: Juke-box
한국어: 주크박스
hrvatski: Jukebox
Bahasa Indonesia: Kotak juke
italiano: Jukebox
עברית: ג'וקבוקס
Nederlands: Jukebox
norsk: Jukeboks
português: Jukebox
sicilianu: Giubbòchisi
Simple English: Jukebox
slovenčina: Jukebox
српски / srpski: Џубокс
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Džuboks
suomi: Jukebox
svenska: Jukebox
українська: Музичний автомат
Winaray: Dyukbaks