A judicial panel is a set of judges who sit together to hear a
Cases and controversies shall be heard and determined by a court or panel of not more than three judges (except that the
United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuitmay sit in panels of more than three judges if its rules so provide), unless a hearing or rehearing before the court en banc is ordered by a majority of the circuit judges of the circuit who are in regular active service.
Most trials in the
A district court of three judges shall be convened when otherwise required by Act of Congress, or when an action is filed challenging the constitutionality of the apportionment of congressional districts or the apportionment of any statewide legislative body.
Until 1976, three-judge panels heard lawsuits challenging the constitutionality of state and federal statutes, but this practice has largely ended, the major exceptions being apportionment and redistricting cases.
Typically, if the
Some bodies, such as the British