Lyman Poore Duff.jpg
Sir Lyman Duff, PC, GCMG, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada (1933–44)
Names Judge, freedoms, and justices magistrate
Occupation type
Activity sectors
Law, Justice
Education required
University degree in law and experience as a lawyer
Fields of
Related jobs
Barrister, prosecutor

A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and, typically, in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, and then issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might also be an examining magistrate.

Symbols of office

17th century Spanish judge in full gowns, by Velázquez.

A variety of traditions have become associated with the rank or occupation.

In many parts of the world, judges wear long robes (often in black or red) and sit on an elevated platform during trials (known as the bench).

American judges frequently wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and contempt of court power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. However, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. In Italy and Portugal, both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes.

In some countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs. The long wig often associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was part of the standard attire in previous centuries. A short wig resembling but not identical to a barrister's wig (a Bench Wig) would be worn in court. This tradition, however, is being phased out in Britain in non-criminal courts. [1]

In Oman, the judge wears a long stripe (red, green white), while the attorneys wear the black gown.

In Portugal and in the former Portuguese Empire, the judges used to carry a staff that was red for ordinary judges and white for the judges from the outside.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: ХеящӀэ
العربية: قاضي
azərbaycanca: Hakim (hüquq)
বাংলা: বিচারক
Bân-lâm-gú: Hoat-koaⁿ
беларуская: Суддзя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Судзьдзя
български: Съдия
བོད་ཡིག: ཁྲིམས་དཔོན།
català: Jutge
čeština: Soudce
Cymraeg: Barnwr
dansk: Dommer
Deutsch: Richter
eesti: Kohtunik
Ελληνικά: Δικαστής
español: Juez
Esperanto: Juĝisto
euskara: Epaile
فارسی: قاضی
français: Juge
Frysk: Rjochter
Gàidhlig: Breitheamh
galego: Xuíz
한국어: 법관
Հայերեն: Դատավոր
हिन्दी: न्यायधीश
hrvatski: Sudac
Bahasa Indonesia: Hakim
íslenska: Dómari
italiano: Giudice
עברית: שופט
Kiswahili: Hakimu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jij
Latina: Iudex
latviešu: Tiesnesis
lietuvių: Teisėjas
Bahasa Melayu: Hakim
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တရားသူကြီး
Nederlands: Rechter
日本語: 裁判官
norsk: Dommer
norsk nynorsk: Dommar i retten
occitan: Jutge
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sudya
polski: Sędzia
português: Juiz
română: Judecător
Runa Simi: Taripakuq
русский: Судья
Scots: Judge
Simple English: Judge
slovenčina: Sudca
slovenščina: Sodnik
српски / srpski: Судија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sudija
suomi: Tuomari
svenska: Domare
Tagalog: Hukom
Türkçe: Hâkim (hukuk)
українська: Суддя
اردو: قاضی
Tiếng Việt: Thẩm phán
ייִדיש: ריכטער
中文: 法官